Title: Diabetic nutritionals and method of using
United States Patent: 6,248,375
Inventors: Gilles; Stephanie M. (Hilliard, OH); Wolf;
Bryan W. (Johnstown, OH); Zinker; Bradley A. (Vernon Hills, IL); Garleb;
Keith A. (Powell, OH); Walton; Joseph E. (Westerville, OH); Nicholson; Sue
E. (Worthington, OH)
Assignee: Abbott Laboratories (Abbott Park, IL)
Appl. No.: 524445
Filed: March 14, 2000
The present invention is directed to solid matrix nutritionals designed
for the person with diabetes. The carbohydrate system of this invention
utilizes a source of fructose in combination with at least one
nonabsorbent carbohydrate to achieve the same effect of prior art complex
multi-component carbohydrate systems. This carbohydrate system has the
added benefits of tasting good and can be incorporated into solid matrix
nutritionals. The solid matrix nutritionals may also include a source of
dietary fiber and a source of indigestible oligosaccharides. The solid
matrix nutritionals may be administered to a diabetic in the form of
cereal, bread, cookies, muffins, bagels, biscuits, crackers and bars.
Particularly, the present invention is directed to a nutritional bar
designed for the person with diabetes which incorporates the carbohydrate
system. The present invention is also directed to a method of delivering
nutrients to a person with diabetes by feeding the solid matrix
nutritionals which incorporates the carbohydrate system.
As used in this application:
a. "glycemic index" (GI) is calculated by dividing the blood
glucose incremental area under the curve (AUC) of the test food by the
blood glucose AUC of the reference food and multiplying by 100, where the
carbohydrate content of test and reference foods are the same. The
reference food is typically glucose or white bread which has the standard
GI of 100.
b. the term "total dietary fiber" or "dietary fiber"
refers to the sum of the soluble and insoluble fibers. These food
components are not broken down by the alimentary enzymes of humans to
small molecules which are absorbed into the bloodstream.
c. "soluble" and "insoluble" dietary fiber is
determined using American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) Method
32-07. A "soluble" dietary fiber source refers to a fiber source
in which at least 60% of the dietary fiber is soluble dietary fiber as
determined by AACC Method 32-07, and an "insoluble" dietary
fiber source refers to a fiber source in which at least 60% of the total
dietary fiber is insoluble dietary fiber as determined by AACC Method
d. "fermentable" and "non-fermentable" dietary fiber
is determined by the procedure described in "Fermentability of
Various Fiber Sources by Human Fecal Bacteria In Vitro", at AMERICAN
JOURNAL CLINICAL NUTRITION, 1991; 53:1418-1424. This procedure is also
described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,085,883 to Garleb et al., the teachings of
both of which are incorporated herein by reference.
"Non-fermentable" dietary fiber refers to dietary fibers which
have a relatively low fermentability of less than 40% by weight,
preferably less than 30% by weight, and the term "fermentable"
dietary fiber refers to dietary fibers which have a relatively high
fermentability of greater than 60% by weight, preferably greater than 70%
e. the term "indigestible oligosaccharide" refers to a small
carbohydrate moiety with a degree of polymerization less than or equal to
about 20 and/or a molecular weight less than or equal to about 3,600, that
is resistant to endogenous digestion in the human upper digestive tract.
f. the term "nonabsorbent carbohydrates" refers to a
carbohydrate moiety with a degree of polymerization greater than about 20
and/or a molecular weight greater than about 3,600, that is resistant to
endogenous digestion in the human upper digestive tract. Nonabsorbent
carbohydrates possess many of the characteristics of total dietary fiber.
However, they are not quantifiable by the MCC Method 32-07 for fiber and
consequently they are not included in total dietary fiber values of the
g. the term "total calories" refers to the total caloric content
of a definitive weight of the finished nutritional product.
h. the term "Reference Daily Intakes or RDI" refers to a set of
dietary references based on the Recommended Dietary Allowances for
essential vitamins and minerals. The Recommended Dietary Allowances are a
set of estimated nutrient allowances established by the National Academy
of Sciences, which are updated periodically to reflect current scientific
i. the terms "fructose" and "source of fructose" are
used interchangeably and refer to the actual fructose content in a
j. "sucrose free" refers to sucrose levels less than 0.5 wt/wt %
of the solid matrix nutritional.
An aspect of the instant invention are solid matrix nutritionals designed
to incorporate a two component carbohydrate system which blunts the
glycemic response like the complex multi-component carbohydrate systems of
the prior art. The solid matrix nutritionals of this invention are
essentially sucrose free and are designed to be used as a meal replacement
or nutritional supplement for persons with DM. The solid matrix
nutritionals comprise a protein source, a fat source, a carbohydrate
source, vitamins, and minerals in amounts sufficient to supplement a
diabetic's normal diet. Such amounts are well known by those skilled in
the art and can be readily calculated when preparing such products.
Although not intended to limit the invention in any manner, but to merely
serve as a general guideline, a solid matrix nutritional of this invention
will typically provide the caloric distribution described in Table 2.
Solid Matrix Nutritional Component Ranges
Target Preferred More preferred
Component (% Calories) (% Calories) (% Calories)
Protein 10-25 10-20 15-20
Fat <30 10-30 20-30
Carbohydrate 45-90 50-80 50-65
The first component of the solid matrix nutritionals of this invention is
a two component carbohydrate system. The two component carbohydrate system
of the instant invention comprises a source of fructose and at least one
nonabsorbent carbohydrate. Component ranges for the two component
carbohydrate system are described in Table 3 on a dry matter basis.
Carbohydrate System Ranges (wt/wt % of carbohydrate system)
Range Preferred More Preferred
Component (wt/wt %) (wt/wt %) (wt/wt %)
fructose 65-100 70-90 70-80
nonabsorbent carbohydrate 0-35 10-30 20-30
The first component of the two component carbohydrate system of the
instant invention is a source of fructose. The fructose source provides
sweetness and has a good glycemic index (GI=30). Any fructose source
suitable for human consumption may be utilized in the instant invention.
Examples of typical fructose sources include high fructose corn syrup,
honey and liquid and powder fructose. As indicated in Table 3, the typical
amount of fructose in the two component carbohydrate system is from about
65 wt/wt % to about 100 wt/wt % of the two component carbohydrate system,
preferably from about 70 wt/wt % to about 90 wt/wt % of the two component
carbohydrate system, more preferably from about 70 wt/wt % to about 80
wt/wt % of the two component carbohydrate system.
Fructose is found naturally in fruits and honey. More typically,
commercially available fructose is produced by enzymatic conversion of
saccharides to fructose. The fructose content of various sources is listed
in Table 4.
Carbohydrate profile of several fructose sources*
high fructose corn syrup
% dry basis fructose (representative profiles) honey
fructose 99.5 42 55 49
dextrose 0.5 52 41 40
maltose 0 3 2 9
higher saccharides 0 3 2 2
*Fructose and corn syrup data from Cargill, Minneapolis, Minnesota product
information sheets, honey values from National
Honey Board, San Francisco,
Commercial high fructose corn syrup is available at various levels of
fructose. The high fructose corn syrup profiles listed in Table 4
represent two commercially available fructose sources, with fructose at
42% and 55% of the corn syrup, respectively. Any reference in this
application to a quantity of fructose should be understood as referring to
the actual fructose content within the carbohydrate source. For example,
100 gm of the honey in Table 4 would provide 49 gm of fructose. One
skilled in the art can readily calculate how much of a carbohydrate source
should be added to the solid matrix nutritional product in order to
deliver the desired amount of fructose.
Commercial sources for the fructose are readily available and known to one
practicing the art. For example, various high fructose corn syrups are
available from Cargil in Minneapolis, Minn. Fructose is available from A.
E. Staley in Decatur Illinois and honey is available from De Zaan Inc. in
Fort Lee, N.J.
The second component of the two component carbohydrate system is
nonabsorbent carbohydrates which comprises less than or equal to about 35
wt/wt % of the two component carbohydrate system, preferably from about 10
wt/wt % to about 30 wt/wt % of the two component carbohydrate system, more
preferably from about 20 wt/wt % to about 30 wt/wt % of the two component
Examples of nonabsorbent carbohydrate sources of the instant invention
typically include chemically modified starches such as Fibersol 2(E) and
Nonabsorbent carbohydrates possess many of the characteristics of fibers
but are not quantified by the AACC method as total dietary fiber. Chemical
modification of starch can ultimately affect its rate and extent of
digestion in the small intestine. Partial hydrolysis of starch using acid
and heat results in molecular rearrangement of the starch molecule such
that alpha and beta-(1,2) and -(1,3) linkages are formed in addition to
reconfiguration of existing alpha-(1,4) and -(1,6) bonds into beta bonds.
For example, corn starch treated with hydrochloric acid, amylase and heat
produces a low molecular weight indigestible dextrin (distributed by
Matsutani Chemical Industry, Hyogo Japan under the product name Fibersol
2(E)) with a slow rate of fermentation. Therefore, the nonabsorbent
carbohydrate is more likely to reach the lower part of the large intestine
and be utilized by the indigenous microbiota.
Inulin is usually purified from plants such as chicory, Jerusalem
artichoke, leek and asparagus. Various procedures for extracting the
inulin have been reported. Usually the steps include chopping up the plant
and extraction of the inulin.
Commercial sources of nonabsorbent carbohydrates are readily available and
known to one practicing the art. For example, Fibersol 2(E) is available
from Matsutani Chemical Industry, Hyogo Japan while inulin is available
from Rhone-Poulenc, Inc, Cranbury, N.J.
The second component of the solid matrix nutritional products of this
invention is protein. The proteins that may be utilized in the solid
matrix nutritional products of the invention include any proteins suitable
for human consumption. Such proteins are well known by those skilled in
the art and can be readily selected when preparing such products. Examples
of suitable proteins that may be utilized typically include casein, whey,
milk protein, soy, pea, rice, corn, hydrolyzed protein and mixtures
thereof. As indicated in Table 2, the typical amount of protein in the
nutritional bar is from about 10% to about 25% of total calories,
preferably from about 10% to about 20% of total calories, more preferably
from about 15% to about 20% of total calories.
The preferred protein component typically comprises about 100 wt/wt % of
the protein component as soy protein.
Commercial sources for the proteins listed above are readily available and
known to one practicing the art. For example, caseinates, whey, hydrolyzed
caseinates, hydrolyzed whey and milk proteins are available from New
Zealand Milk Products of Santa Rosa, Calif. Soy and hydrolyzed soy
proteins are available from Protein Technologies International of Saint
Louis, Mo. Pea protein is available from Feinkost Ingredients Company of
Lodi, Ohio. Rice protein is available from California Natural Products of
Lathrop, Calif. Corn protein is available from EnerGenetics Inc. of
The third component of the solid matrix nutritional of this invention is
the fat. As noted above, the fat source of this invention will typically
provide less than about 30% of the total calories, preferably about 10% to
about 30% of the total calories, more preferably from about 20% to about
30% of the total calories. The fat source for the present invention may be
any fat source or blend of fat sources which provides the desired levels
of saturated (less than 10% kcal), polyunsaturated (up to 10% kcal) and
monounsaturated fatty acids (10% to 15% kcal). Examples of food grade fats
are well known in the art and typically include soy oil, olive oil, marine
oil, sunflower oil, high oleic sunflower oil, safflower oil, high oleic
safflower oil, fractionated coconut oil (MCToil), cottonseed oil, corn
oil, canola oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil and mixtures thereof.
The preferred fat component typically comprises about 66 wt/wt % of the
fat as high oleic safflower oil, about 27 wt/wt % of the fat as canola oil
and about 7 wt/wt % of the fat as soy lecithin.
Numerous commercial sources for the fats listed above are readily
available and known to one practicing the art. For example, soy and canola
oils are available from Archer Daniels Midland of Decatur, Ill. Corn,
coconut, palm and palm kernel oils are available from Premier Edible Oils
Corporation of Portland, Oreg. Fractionated coconut oil (MCT oil) is
available from Henkel Corporation of LaGrange, Ill. High oleic safflower
and high oleic sunflower oils are available from SVO Specialty Products of
Eastlake, Ohio. Marine oil is available from Mochida International of
Tokyo, Japan. Olive oil is available from Anglia Oils of North Humberside,
United Kingdom. Sunflower and cottonseed oils are available from Cargil of
Minneapolis, Minn. Safflower oil is available from California Oils
Corporation of Richmond, Calif.
Optional ingredients, dietary fiber and indigestible oligosaccharides, may
be incorporated into the solid matrix nutritional. Typically for every
gram of dietary fiber and indigestible oligosaccharide added to the
formulation, a gram of the two component carbohydrate system is removed.
Typically up to about 25% of the two component carbohydrate system may be
removed and replaced with dietary fiber and indigestible oligosaccharide.
An optional component of the solid matrix nutritional is dietary fiber
which comprises less than or equal to about 30 wt/wt % of the solid matrix
nutritional, preferably from about 5 wt/wt % to about 20 wt/wt % of the
solid matrix nutritional, more preferably from about 10 wt/wt % to about
20 wt/wt % of the solid matrix nutritional.
Examples of dietary fiber sources of the instant invention typically
include gum arabic, carboxymethylcellulose, guar gum, gellan gum, gum
acacia, citrus pectin, low and high methoxy pectin, modified cellulose,
oat and barley glucans, carrageenan, psyllium, soy polysaccharide, oat
hull fiber, pea hull fiber, soy hull fiber, soy cotyledon fiber, sugar
beet fiber, cellulose, corn bran and hydrolyzed forms of the listed
fibers, encapsulated forms of the listed fibers and any combination
Numerous types of dietary fibers are known and available to one practicing
the art. Fibers differ significantly in their chemical composition and
physical structure and therefore their physiological functions. The
dietary fiber sources utilized in this invention can be characterized by
the terms solubility and fermentability. With regard to solubility, fiber
can be divided into soluble and insoluble types and fiber sources differ
in the amount of soluble and insoluble fiber they contain.
The preferred dietary fiber component comprises about 62 wt/wt % of the
fiber component as soy polysaccharide, about 21 wt/wt % of the fiber
component as encapsulated guar gum and about 17 wt/wt % of the fiber
component as microcrystalline cellulose.
Representative of soluble dietary fiber sources are gum arabic, sodium
carboxymethylcellulose, guar gum, gellan gum, citrus pectin, low and high
methoxy pectin, oat and barley glucans, carrageenan and psyllium. Numerous
commercial sources of soluble dietary fibers are readily available and
known to one practicing the art. For example, gum arabic, hydrolyzed
carboxymethylcellulose, guar gum, pectin and the low and high methoxy
pectins are available from TIC Gums, Inc. of Belcamp, Maryland. The oat
and barley glucans are available from Mountain Lake Specialty Ingredients,
Inc. of Omaha, Neb. Psyllium is available from the Meer Corporation of
North Bergen, N.J. while the carrageenan is available from FMC Corporation
of Philadelphia, Pa.
Many of the soluble dietary fibers are difficult to incorporate into a
solid matrix nutritionals due to their affinity to bind moisture which
results in a hard food product. Encapsulation of the soluble fiber
facilitates their incorporation into a solid matrix nutritional. U.S. Pat.
No. 5,545,414 teaches how to encapsulate dietary fiber with zein and is
hereby incorporated by reference.
Representative of the insoluble dietary fibers are oat hull fiber, pea
hull fiber, soy hull fiber, soy cotyledon fiber, sugar beet fiber,
cellulose and corn bran. Numerous sources for the insoluble dietary fibers
are readily available and known to one practicing the art. For example,
the corn bran is available from Quaker Oats of Chicago, Ill.; oat hull
fiber from Canadian Harvest of Cambridge, Minn.; pea hull fiber from
Woodstone Foods of Winnipeg, Canada; soy hull fiber and oat hull fiber
from The Fibrad Group of LaVale, Md.; soy cotyledon fiber from Protein
Technologies International of St. Louis, Mo.; sugar beet fiber from Delta
Fiber Foods of Minneapolis, Minn. and cellulose from the James River Corp.
of Saddle Brook, N.J.
Dietary fiber can also be divided into fermentable and non-fermentable
types. This property of fiber is the capacity to be fermented by the
anaerobic bacteria present in the human large bowel. Dietary fibers vary
significantly in their fermentability.
Representative of fermentable dietary fiber sources are gum arabic and
guar gum. Commercial sources of fermentable dietary fibers are readily
available and known to one practicing the art. For example, gum arabic and
guar gum are available from TIC Gums, Inc. of Belcamp, Md.
Representative of non-fermentable dietary fiber sources are
carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), psyllium, oat hull fiber and corn bran.
Numerous commercial sources of non-fermentable dietary fibers are readily
available and known to one practicing the art. For example,
carboxymethylcellulose is available from TIC Gums, Inc. of Belcamp, Md.
The corn bran is available from Quaker Oats of Chicago, Ill. while the oat
hull fiber is available from Canadian Harvest of Cambridge, Minn. Psyllium
is available from the Meer Corporation of North Bergen, N.J.
A second optional component of the solid matrix nutritional is
indigestible oligosaccharides which comprises less than or equal to about
2.5 wt/wt % of the solid matrix nutritional.
Examples of indigestible oligosaccharides sources of the instant invention
typically include fructooligosaccharides (FOS), xylooligosaccharides(XOS),
alpha glucooligosaccharides(GOS), trans galactosyl oligosaccharides(TOS),
soybean oligosaccharides, lactosucrose, hydrolyzed inulin and polydextrose.
An indigestible oligosaccharide, such as fructooligosaccharide(FOS), is
rapidly and extensively fermented to short chain fatty acids by anaerobic
microorganisms that inhabit the large bowel increasing cell proliferation
in the proximal colonic epithelial mucosa. Further, FOS is a preferential
energy source for most Bifidobacterium species but it is not utilized by
potentially pathogenic organisms such as Clostridium perfingens, C.
difficile, or E. coli. Thus, the addition of FOS to the nutritional
products of the present invention selects for beneficial bacteria, such as
bifidobacteria, but against potential pathogens, such as Clostridium
difficile and putrefactive bacteria.
The preferred indigestible oligosaccharide component typically comprises
about 100 wt/wt % of the indigestible oligosaccharide as FOS.
Numerous commercial sources of indigestible oligosaccharides are readily
available and known to one practicing the art. For example, FOS is
available from Golden Technologies Company of Golden, Colo. and XOS is
available from Suntory Limited of Osaka, Japan. GOS is available from
Solabia, Pantin Cedex, France. TOS is available from Yakult Honsha Co.,
Tokyo, Japan. Soybean oligosaccharide is available from Calpis Corporation
distributed by Ajinomoto U.S.A. Inc., Teaneck, N.J. Hydrolyzed inulin is
available from Rhone-Poulenc, Inc, Cranbury, N.J. while polydextrose is
available from A. E. Staley in Decatur Ill.
The solid matrix nutritional compositions of the invention desirably
contain vitamins and minerals. Vitamins and minerals are understood to be
essential in the daily diet. Those skilled in the art appreciate that
minimum requirements have been established for certain vitamins and
minerals that are known to be necessary for normal physiological function.
Practitioners also understand that appropriate additional amounts of
vitamin and mineral ingredients need to be provided to nutritional
compositions to compensate for some loss during processing and storage of
such compositions. Additionally, the practitioner understands that certain
micronutrients may have potential benefit for people with diabetes such as
chromium, carnitine, taurine and vitamin E and that higher dietary
requirements may exist for certain micronutrients such as ascorbic acid
due to higher turnover in people with type 2 diabetes.
An example of the vitamin and mineral system for a solid matrix
nutritional used as a nutritional supplement typically comprises at least
10% of the RDI, preferably at least 15% of the RDI for the vitamins A, B.,
B2, B6, B12, C, D, E, K, beta-carotene,
biotin, folic acid, pantothenic acid, and niacin; the minerals calcium,
magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorous, and chloride; the trace
minerals iron, zinc, manganese, copper, and iodine; the ultra trace
minerals chromium, molybdenum, selenium; and the conditionally essential
nutrients such as m-inositol in from about 76 Calories to about 228
Artificial sweeteners may also be added to the solid matrix nutritional of
the instant invention to enhance the organoleptic quality of the
nutritional. Examples of suitable artificial sweeteners typically include
saccharine, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose. The solid matrix
nutritional of the present invention will also desirably include a
coating, flavoring and/or color to provide the nutritional products with
an appealing appearance and an acceptable taste for oral consumption. For
example, the nutritional bars of Examples of the Invention I and II were
coated with sugar free white confectionery coating and sugar free dark
confectionery coating, respectively. Examples of suitable coatings
typically include compounded confectionery coating, milk chocolate
coating, glazes, shellac, sugar free compounded confectionery coating,
sugar free glazes and sugar free shellac. Examples of useful flavorings
for the solid matrix nutritional typically include, for example,
chocolate, butter pecan, strawberry, cherry, orange, peanut butter, graham
The solid matrix nutritional of the instant invention will also desirably
include ingredients which add texture to enhance the mouth feel of the
solid matrix nutritional. For example, crisp rice was added at about 6.5
wt/wt % of the nutritional bar in Examples of the Invention I and II.
Examples of other suitable ingredients which can add texture typically
include nuts, soy nuggets, toasted oats, and fruit pieces.
The solid matrix nutritional compositions may be manufactured using cold
extrusion technology as is known in the art. To prepare such compositions,
typically all of the powdered components will be dry blended together.
Such constituents typically include the proteins, vitamin premixes,
certain carbohydrates, etc. The fat soluble components are then blended
together and mixed with the powdered premix above. Finally any liquid
components are then mixed into the composition, forming a plastic like
composition or dough.
The process above is intended to give a plastic mass which can then be
shaped, without further physical or chemical changes occurring, by the
procedure known as cold forming or extrusion. In this process, the plastic
mass is forced at relatively low pressure through a die which confers the
desired shape and the resultant exudate is then cut off at an appropriate
position to give products of the desired weight.
The mass may, for example, be forced through a die of small cross-section
to form a ribbon, which is carried on a belt moving at a predetermined
speed under a guillotine type cutter which operates at regular intervals.
The cutter, in this case, generally consists of a sharpened blade so
adjusted that it cuts through the ribbon but not the underlying belt, but
may also consist of a wire. In both cases, the principle is the same; the
cutting process occurs at intervals that permit the moving ribbon to be
cut into pieces of equivalent weight and dimensions. Generally, this is
achieved by timing the cutting strokes and maintaining belt speed at an
appropriate level, but there also exist computer controlled versions of
this mechanism which offer greater versatility. Alternatively, the mass
may be forced through a die of large cross-section and then cut at die
level into slices by an oscillating knife or wire, which drop onto a
moving belt and are thus transported away. The mass may also be extruded
as a sheet, which is then cut with a stamp type cutter into shapes that
are appropriate, such as a cookie type cutter. Finally, the mass may also
be forced into chambers on a rotary die equipped with an eccentric cam
that forces the thus-formed material out of the chamber at a certain point
in a rotation of the cylindrical die.
After shaping, the formed product is moved by a transfer belt or other
type of material conveyor to an area where it may be further processed or
simply packaged. In general, a nutritional bar of the type described would
be enrobed (coated) in a material that may be chocolate, a compound
chocolate coating, or some other type of coating material. In all such
cases, the coating material consists of a fat that is solid at room
temperature, but that is liquid at temperature in excess of e.g. 31oC.,
together with other materials that confer the organoleptic attributes. The
coating is thus applied to the bar while molten, by permitting the bar to
pass through a falling curtain of liquid coating, at the same time passing
over a plate or rollers which permit coating to be applied to the under
surface of the bar, and excess coating is blown off by means of air jets.
Finally, the enrobed bar passes through a cooling tunnel where
refrigerated air currents remove heat and cause the coating to solidify.
In contrast to the cold extrusion manufacturing process of the solid
matrix nutritionals above, the solid matrix nutritionals of the instant
invention may also be manufactured through a baked application or heated
extrusion to produce cereals, cookies, and crackers. One knowledgeable in
the arts would be able to select one of the many manufacturing processes
available to produce the desired final product.
For example, a dough may be prepared by mixing the dry ingredients with
liquid ingredients within a section of the extruder which has temperatures
below the cooking or gelatization range of the ingredients. Alternatively,
the mixing may be carried out in a batch process or in a continuous dough
mixer and then fed into the extruder, depending on the final product
desired. Other ingredients such as syrups or sweeteners, flavoring agents,
fortification such as fibers, protein, vitamins and minerals, inlays
including fruits and nuts, starch modifiers such as emulsifiers and the
like may be incorporated into the dough matrix at any appropriate position
along the length of the extruder barrel.
The dough then passes into the cooking or heating section of the extruder
where it is heated for a time and a temperature and pressure effective to
raise the temperature of the dough to temperatures sufficiently high to
initiate gelatinization of the starch and denaturation of the protein. The
dough is heated within the extruder to temperatures ranging from about 100oC.
to about 149oC. These temperatures are necessary to begin the
gelatinization and denaturation process. The temperature within the
extruder is maintained sufficiently high so that the heat applied when
combined with the heat resulting from the frictional energy results in the
extrudate emerging from the extruder having a temperature in the range of
about 100oC. to about 149oC. and pressure ranging
from about 0 psig to about 500 psig.
The heated dough is discharged from the extruder into a hollow attachment.
The length of the hollow attachment affects the degree of cooking which is
necessary to promote flavor development; complete the gelatinization of
the starch; swell the grain fractions, especially bran; enhances color
development due to caramelization and maillard reaction; promotes textural
enhancement and, control the loss of volatile flavor components. The
length of time the dough remains in the hollow attachment is also a factor
which affects the finished product characteristics. The length of the
hollow attachment and the inlet feed rate of the extruder generally
determines the residence time within the hollow attachment, hence, the
degree of cook that is achieved. Residence time within the hollow
attachment generally ranges from about 3 minutes to about 100 minutes.
Typically, the length of the hollow attachment is at least 3 times the
longest cross-sectional dimension of the discharge outlet of the extruder.
However, the length can range from 3 times the longest cross-sectional
dimension of the discharge outlet of the extruder to about 1000 times the
longest cross-sectional dimension of the discharge outlet of the extruder.
The temperature and moisture of the dough is maintained as the dough
passes through the hollow attachment. The product exiting the attachment
generally has temperatures ranging from about 113oC. to about
135oC. and moisture level ranging from about 14% to about 22%.
Depending on the final product desired, an optional die plate containing
orifices may be attached at the discharge outlet of the hollow attachment.
The presence of a die plate can cause an increase in back pressure within
the hollow attachment ranging from about 50 psig to about 2000 psig. The
product exiting the die orifice is generally in the form of a rope which
is subsequently cut into a desired size for subsequent processing. The
shape of the die orifice can also vary depending on the end product
The cooked mass exits the hollow attachment and is cooled to temperatures
ranging from 10oC. to 93oC. In the case of a flaked
product, the cooked, cooled mass is reduced to a suitable size for
flaking. In cases where a die is used, pellets can be cut directly at the
die face or a rope can be produced and pellets formed. The moisture
content after cooling ranges from about 8% to about 20%.
The cooled mass is then shaped based on the final product desired.
Typically, shaping is accomplished by a comminution mill or by other means
such as shredding and grating rolls, briquetting means, pellitizers,
flaking rolls and the like. The cereal or cracker shaped product can then
be toasted or dried to a moisture content ranging from about 2% to about
10% depending on the final product desired.
The heated extrusion process described above may also be used to
manufacture a solid matrix nutritional with cookie-like crumb structure.
The partially baked dough exits the extruder at about 54oC. The
dough is immediately transferred to an auger fed wire-cutting machine and
cut into 1 inch diameter pieces while hot. The partially cooked dough
pieces are then cooked off a microwave oven for about 70 seconds to
produce distinctly leavened cookies which are brown and have a crumb-like
structure and crumb-like texture.
The present invention is also directed to a method of delivering nutrients
to a person with diabetes by feeding the solid matrix nutritional which
incorporates the two component carbohydrate system described above.
Claim 1 of 19 Claims
1. A nutritional bar comprising:
a) a source of fat;
b) a carbohydrate system consisting essentially of:
i) a source of fructose from about 65 wt/wt % to about 100 wt/wt % of the
carbohydrate system, and
ii) at least one nonabsorbent carbohydrate source wherein said
nonabsorbent carbohydrate is less than about 35 wt/wt % of the
carbohydrate system; and
c) a source of protein.
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