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Title:  Botulinum toxin implant

United States Patent:  6,312,708

Inventors:  Donovan; Stephen (Capistrano Beach, CA)

Assignee:  Allergan Sales, Inc. (Irvine, CA)

Appl. No.:  624003

Filed:  July 21, 2000

Abstract

A controlled release system for multiphasic, in vivo release of therapeutic amounts of botulinum toxin in a human patient over a prolonged period of time. The controlled release system can comprise a plurality of botulinum toxin incorporating polymeric microspheres.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention meets this need and provides a biocompatible, pulsatile release, botulinum toxin delivery system by which therapeutic amounts of the botulinum toxin can be locally administered in vivo to a human patient over a prolonged period of time.

The present invention provides a botulinum toxin implant which overcomes the known problems, difficulties and deficiencies associated with repetitive bolus or subcutaneous injection of a botulinum toxin, to treat an affliction such as a movement disorder, including a muscle spasm.

A pulsatile release botulinum toxin delivery system within the scope of the present invention can comprise a carrier material and a botulinum toxin associated with the carrier. The toxin can be associated with the carrier by being mixed with and encapsulated by the carrier to thereby form a pulsatile release botulinum toxin delivery system, that is a botulinum toxin implant. The implant can release therapeutic amounts of the botulinum toxin from the carrier in a plurality of pulses in vivo upon subdermal implantation of the implant system into a human patient. "Subdermal" implantation includes subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraglandular and intracranial sites of implantation.

Preferably, the carrier comprises a plurality of polymeric microspheres (i.e. a polymeric matrix) and substantial amounts of the botulinum toxin has not be transformed into a botulinum toxoid prior to association of the botulinum toxin with the carrier. That is, significant amounts of the botulinum toxin associated with the carrier have a toxicity which is substantially unchanged relative to the toxicity of the botulinum toxin prior to association of the botulinum toxin with the carrier.

According to the present invention, the botulinum toxin can be released from the carrier over of a period of time of from about 10 days to about 6 years and the carrier is comprised of a substance which is substantially biodegradable.

The botulinum toxin is one of the botulinum toxin types A, B, C1, D, E, F and G and is preferably botulinum toxin type A. The botulinum toxin can be associated with the carrier in an amount of between about 1 unit and about 50,000 units of the botulinum toxin. Preferably, the quantity of the botulinum toxin associated with the carrier is between about 10 units and about 2,000 units of a botulinum toxin type A. Where the botulinum toxin is botulinum toxin type B, preferably, the quantity of the botulinum toxin associated with the carrier is between about 100 units and about 30,000 units of a botulinum toxin type B.

A detailed embodiment of the present invention can comprise a controlled release system, comprising a biodegradable polymer and between about 10 units and about 100,000 units of a botulinum toxin encapsulated by the polymer carrier, thereby forming a controlled release system, wherein therapeutic amounts of the botulinum toxin can be released from the carrier in a pulsatile manner in vivo upon subdermal implantation of the controlled release system in a human patient over a prolonged period of time extending from about 2 months to about 5 years.

A method for making an implant within the scope of the present invention can have the steps of: dissolving a polymer in a solvent to form a polymer solution; mixing or dispersing a botulinum toxin in the polymer solution to form a polymer-botulinum toxin mixture, and; allowing the polymer-botulinum toxin mixture to set or cure, thereby making an implant for pulsatile release of the botulinum toxin. This method can have the further step after the mixing step of evaporating solvent.

A method for using a pulsatile implant within the scope of the present invention can be by injecting or implanting a polymeric implant which includes a botulinum toxin, thereby treating a movement disorder or a disorder influenced by cholinergic innervation by local administration of a botulinum toxin.

An alternate embodiment of the present invention can be a carrier comprising a polymer selected from the group of polymers consisting of polylactides and polyglycolides and a stabilized botulinum toxin associated with the carrier, thereby forming a pulsatile release botulinum toxin delivery system, wherein therapeutic amounts of the botulinum toxin can be released from the carrier in a plurality of pulses in vivo upon subdermal implantation of the delivery system in a human patient. The carrier can comprise a plurality of discrete sets of polymeric, botulinum toxin incorporating microspheres, wherein each set of polymers has a different polymeric composition.

The botulinum toxin used in an implant according to the present invention can comprise: a first element comprising a binding element able to specifically bind to a neuronal cell surface receptor under physiological conditions, a second element comprising a translocation element able to facilitate the transfer of a polypeptide across a neuronal cell membrane, and a third element comprising a therapeutic element able, when present in the cytoplasm of a neuron, to inhibit exocytosis of acetylcholine from the neuron. The therapeutic element can cleave a SNARE protein, thereby inhibiting the exocytosis of acetylcholine from the neuron and the SNARE protein is can be selected from the group consisting of syntaxin, SNAP-25 and VAMP. Generally, the neuron affected by the botulinum toxin is a presynaptic, cholinergic, peripheral motor neuron.

The amount of a botulinum toxin administered by a continuous release system within the scope of the present invention during a given period can be between about 10-3 U/kg and about 35 U/kg for a botulinum toxin type A and up to about 2000 U/kg for other botulinum toxins, such as a botulinum toxin type B. 35 U/kg or 2000 U/kg is an upper limit because it approaches a lethal dose of certain neurotoxins, such as botulinum toxin type A or botulinum toxin type B, respectively. Thus, it has been reported that about 2000 units/kg of a commercially available botulinum toxin type B preparation approaches a primate lethal dose of type B botulinum toxin. Meyer K. E. et al, A Comparative Systemic Toxicity Study of Neurobloc in Adult Juvenile Cynomolgus Monkeys, Mov. Disord 15(Suppl 2);54;2000.

Preferably, the amount of a type A botulinum toxin administered by a continuous release system during a given period is between about 10-2 U/kg and about 25 U/kg. Preferably, the amount of a type B botulinum toxin administered by a continuous release system during a given period is between about 10-2 U/kg and about 1000 U/kg, since it has been reported that less than about 1000 U/kg of type B botulinum toxin can be intramuscularly administered to a primate without systemic effect. Ibid. More preferably, the type A botulinum toxin is administered in an amount of between about 10-1 U/kg and about 15 U/kg. Most preferably, the type A botulinum toxin is administered in an amount of between about 1 U/kg and about 10 U/kg. In many instances, an administration of from about 1 units to about 500 units of a botulinum toxin type A, provides effective and long lasting therapeutic relief. More preferably, from about 5 units to about 300 units of a botulinum toxin, such as a botulinum toxin type A, can be used and most preferably, from about 10 units to about 200 units of a neurotoxin, such as a botulinum toxin type A, can be locally administered into a target tissue with efficacious results. In a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention from about 1 units to about 100 units of a botulinum toxin, such as botulinum toxin type A, can be locally administered into a target tissue with therapeutically effective results.

The botulinum toxin can be made by Clostridium botulinum. Additionally, the botulinum toxin can be a modified botulinum toxin, that is a botulinum toxin that has at least one of its amino acids deleted, modified or replaced, as compared to the native or wild type botulinum toxin. Furthermore, the botulinum toxin can be a recombinant produced botulinum toxin or a derivative or fragment thereof.

Significantly, the botulinum toxin can be is administered to by subdermal implantation to the patient by placement of a botulinum toxin implant. The botulinum toxin can administered to a muscle of a patient in an amount of between about 1 unit and about 10,000 units. When the botulinum toxin is botulinum toxin type A and the botulinum toxin can be administered to a muscle of the patient in an amount of between about 1 unit and about 100 units.

Notably, it has been reported that glandular tissue treated by a botulinum toxin can show a reduced secretory activity for as long as 27 months post injection of the toxin. Laryngoscope 1999; 109:1344-1346, Laryngoscope 1998;108:381-384.

The present invention relates to an implant for the controlled release of a neurotoxin and to methods for making and using such implants. The implant can comprise a polymer matrix containing a botulinum toxin. The implant is designed to administer effective levels of neurotoxin over a prolonged period of time when administered, for example, intramuscularly, epidurally or subcutaneously for the treatment of various diseases conditions.

This invention further relates to a composition, and methods of making and using the composition, for the controlled of biologically active, stabilized neurotoxin. The controlled release composition of this invention can comprise a polymeric matrix of a biocompatible polymer and biologically active, stabilized neurotoxin dispersed within the biocompatible polymer.

Claim 1 of 20 Claims

I claim:

1. A pulsatile release botulinum toxin delivery system, comprising:

(a) a carrier;

(b) a botulinum toxin associated with the carrier, thereby forming a pulsatile release botulinum toxin delivery system,

wherein therapeutic amounts of the botulinum toxin can be released from the carrier in a plurality of pulses in vivo upon subdermal implantation of the delivery system in a human patient without a significant immune system response.


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