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Title:  Method for administering insulin

United States Patent:  6,432,383

Issued:  August 13, 2002

Inventors:  Modi; Pankaj (Ancaster, CA)

Assignee:  Generex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (Toronto, CA)

Appl. No.:  538830

Filed:  March 30, 2000

Abstract

A mixed micellar pharmaceutical formulation includes a micellar proteinic pharmaceutical agent, an alkali metal lauryl sulphate, alkali metal salicylate, a pharmaceutically acceptable edetate and at least one absorption enhancing compounds. The absorption enhancing compounds are selected from the group consisting of lecithin, hyaluronic acid, pharmaceutically acceptable salts of hyaluronic acid, octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol, glycolic acid, lactic acid, chamomile extract, cucumber extract, oleic acid, linolenic acid, borage oil, evening of primrose oil, trihydroxy oxo cholanylglycine, glycerin, polyglycerin, lysine, polylysine, triolein and mixtures thereof. The amount of each absorption enhancing compound is present in a concentration of from 1 to 10 wt./wt. % of the total formulation, and the total concentration of absorption enhancing compounds are less than 50 wt./wt. % of the formulation. A method for administering insulin to the buccal mucosa using a metered dose inhaler is also disclosed.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The present invention provides an improved method for delivery of macromolecular (high molecular weight) pharmaceutical agents, particularly through the membranes in the nose, mouth, vagina or rectum. The preferred delivery is through oral and nasal cavities. The pharmaceutical agents cover a wide spectrum of agents, including proteins, peptides, hormones, vaccines and drugs. The molecular weights of the macromolecular pharmaceutical agents are preferably above 1000, especially between 1000 and 2 000 000.

For example, hormones which may be administered with the present invention include thyroids, androgens, estrogens, prostaglandins, somatotropins, gonadotropins, erythropoetin, interferons, interleukins, steroids and cytokins. Vaccines which may be administered with the present invention include bacterial and viral vaccines such as vaccines for hepatitis, influenza, tuberculosis, canary pox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, rubella, pneumonia, BCG, HIV and AIDS. Bacterial toxoids which may be administered using the present invention include diphtheria, tetanus, pseudonomas and mycobactrium tuberculosis. Examples of specific cardiovascular or thromobolytic agents include heparin, hirugen, hirulos and hirudine. Large molecules usefully administered with the present invention include monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies and immunoglobins.

As will be understood, the concentration of the pharmaceutical agent is an amount sufficient to be effective in treating or preventing a disorder or to regulate a physiological condition in an animal or human. The concentration or amount of pharmaceutical agent administered will depend on the parameters determined for the agent and the method of administration, e.g. oral, nasal. For example, nasal formulations tend to require much lower concentrations of some ingredients in order to avoid irritation or burning of the nasal passages. It is sometimes desirable to dilute an oral formulation up to 10-100 times in order to provide a suitable nasal formulation.

The mixed micellar formulation is prepared by first preparing a first micellar composition which contains the pharmaceutically active agents, akali metal lauryl sulphate, edetate and alkali metal salicylate. For those compositions intended for administration through the nasal, oral, vaginal or rectal cavities, the first micellar composition is then added to at least one of the absorption enhancing compounds to form a mixed micellar composition. At least one other absorption enhancing compound may also be added subsequently. Preferably the first absorption enhancing compound is lecithin.

Although the present invention has such wide applicability, the invention is described hereinafter with particular reference to insulin and its analogues, which are used for the treatment of diabetes.

As indicated hereinbefore, the compositions of the present invention require that the pharmaceutical formulation be in mixed micellar form.

In the case of insulin, which is intended for administration through nasal or oral cavities, the first micellar solution may be made by adding a buffer solution to powdered insulin, and then stirring until the powder is dissolved and a clear solution is obtained. A typical buffer solution is an aqueous solution of sodium salicylate and sodium lauryl sulphate and disodium edetate. Typical concentration of sodium salicylate and sodium lauryl sulphate in the aqueous solution are about 3 to 20 wt./wt. % of each compound in the solution. Typically, insulin is present in the micellar solution in an amount which will give a concentration of about 2 to 4 wt./wt. % of the final formulation. Typically the concentration may be about 10 wt./wt. % of the first micellar composition.

The micellar solution is then added slowly to the first absorption enhancing compound, e.g. lecithin while mixing vigorously, e.g. sonicating, to form a mixed micelle liposomal solution. At least one other absorption enhancing compounds selected from the group consisting of lecithin, hyaluronic acid, pharmaceutically acceptable salts of hyaluronic acid, octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol, glycolic acid, lactic acid, chamomile extract, cucumber extract, oleic acid, linolenic acid, borage oil, evening of primrose oil, trihydroxy oxo cholanylglycine, glycerin, polyglycerin, lysine, polylysine, triolein is then added. The mixing may be done with a high speed mixer or sonicator to ensure uniform micelle particle size distribution within the formulation.

Each of the absorption enhancing compounds, when present, is in a concentration of from 1 to 10 wt./wt. % of the total formulation.

Preferred salts of hyaluronic acid are alkali metal hyaluronates, alkaline earth hyaluronates and aluminium hyaluronate. The preferred salt is sodium hyaluronate. The preferred concentration of hyaluronic acid or pharmaceutically acceptable salts of hyaluronic acid is from 1 to 5 wt./wt. % of the total formulation. An even more preferred range is from 1.5 to 3.5 wt./wt. % of the total formulation.

Other ingredients may be added to the mixed micellar solution. For example, flavouring agents, antioxidants, salts, protease inhibitors or other pharmaceutically acceptable compound may be added.

In general the size of the micelle particles in the solution is about 1 to 10 nm, and preferably from 1 to 5 nm. Such a size distribution ensures effective absorption of the formulation, and therefore the pharmaceutical agent, through the membranes, for example the membranes in the oral and nasal cavities.

The specific concentrations of the essential ingredients can be determined by relatively straightforward experimentation. For absorption through the nasal and oral cavities, it is often desirable to increase, e.g. double or triple, the dosage which is normally required through injection of administration through the gastrointestinal tract.

As will be understood, the amount of each component of the formulation will vary depending on the pharmaceutical agent and the site of application. Preferred formulations oral or nasal application have the following combinations: i) sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium salicylate, disodium edetate, Phospholipon-H and sodium hyaluronate; ii) sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium salicylate, disodium edetate, lecithin and sodium hyaluronate; iii) sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium salicylate, disodium edetate, sodium hyaluronate and evening of primrose oil; iv) sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium salicylate, disodium edetate, Phospholipon-H and bacitracin; v) sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium salicylate, disodium edetate, Phospholipon-H, sodium hyaluronate and bacitracin; and vi) sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium salicylate, disodium edetate, sodium hyaluronate, oleic acid and gamma linoleic acid.

The therapeutic compositions of the present invention may be stored at room temperature or at cold temperature. Storage of proteinic drugs is preferable at a cold temperature to prevent degradation of the drugs and to extend their shelf life.

As indicated hereinbefore, generally, oral and nasal are the favourite sites of the administration but the composition can be applied to the rectal and vaginal mucosa. According to the physiologically active peptide or protein used, the dosage form and the site of administration a specific administration method can be selected.

The composition of this invention is generally prepared as microfine mixed micellar particles (1 to 10 nm or less) by the virtue of its preparation methods used and suitable combinations of absorption enhancer characteristics.

Administration of the formulation is by methods generally known in the art. For oral and nasal application, sprays are preferable, but also drops, chewable tablets, chewable gum and other suitable forms may be used. Utilization of atomizer or aerosol spray devices (metered dose inhalers or nebulizers) can be used to further reduce the particle size for effective inhalation from the nasal or oral cavity so the drug may successfully reach to the specific site and be absorbed. It is also possible to utilize a drug delivery system such that an enteric coating is applied to the gelatin capsule to cause the micelles to be released only in the duodenum or in the proximity of the large intestine and not in the stomach.

Claim 1 of 11 Claims

What is claimed is:

1. A method for administering insulin to the buccal mucosa comprising spraying an effective amount of said insulin to the buccal mucosa, using a metered dose inhaler.
 


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