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Title:  Biodegradable neurotoxin implant

United States Patent:  6,383,509

Inventors:  Donovan; Stephen (Capistrano Beach, CA); Brady; Daniel G. (San Juan Capistrano, CA)

Assignee:  Allergan Sales, Inc. (Irvine, CA)

Appl. No.:  923631

Filed:  August 7, 2001

Abstract

A biocompatible implant for continuous in vivo release of a neurotoxin over a treatment period extending from one month to five years. The implant can be made of casting a solution of a polymer, such as an ethyl vinyl acetate copolymer and the neurotoxin. The neurotoxin can be a botulinum toxin.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention meets this need and provides a biocompatible, nonimmunogenic, nonbiodegradable implant which permits long term, continuous release of a neurotoxin in a human patient.

Our invention provides a neurotoxin implant which overcomes the known problems, difficulties and deficiencies associated with repetitive bolus or subcutaneous injection of a neurotoxin, such as a botulinum toxin, to treat an affliction such as a movement disorder, including a muscle spasm.

A controlled release system within the scope of our invention comprises a polymeric matrix, and a quantity of neurotoxin located within the polymeric matrix, wherein fractional amounts of the neurotoxin can be released from the polymeric matrix over a prolonged period of time.

The neurotoxin can be released from the polymeric matrix in a substantially continuous or monophasic manner and the prolonged period of time during which neurotoxin is released from the polymeric matrix can be from 10 days to about 6 years.

The polymeric matrix can be made of a substance which is substantially non-biodegradable and the neurotoxin can be a polypeptide. Additionally, the neurotoxin can be a presynaptic neurotoxin, such as a Clostridial neurotoxin. Further, the neurotoxin can be a botulinum toxin, such as a botulinum toxin selected from the group consisting of botulinum toxin types A, B, C1, D, E, F and G. Preferably, the neurotoxin is a botulinum toxin type A.

The polymer which comprises the polymeric matrix is selected from the group consisting of methacrylate, vinyl pyrrolidone, vinyl alcohol, acrylic acid, siloxane, vinyl acetate, lactic acid, glycolic acid, collagen, and bioceramic polymers and copolymers thereof.

The quantity of the neurotoxin held by the implant is between about 1 unit and about 100,000 units of a botulinum toxin and preferably, from about 1 to about 50,000 units of a botulinum toxin. Thus, the quantity of the neurotoxin can be between about 10 units and about 2,000 units of a botulinum toxin type A and the quantity of the neurotoxin can be between about 100 units and about 30,000 units of a botulinum toxin type B.

The neurotoxin can be a botulinum toxin which is released from the implant in an amount effective to cause flaccid muscular paralysis of a muscle or muscle group at or in the vicinity of the implanted system.

A detailed embodiment of the present invention can be a controlled release system comprising a polymeric matrix, and between about 10 units and about 20,000 units of a botulinum toxin within the polymeric matrix, wherein fractional amounts of the botulinum toxin can be released from the polymeric matrix over a prolonged period of time extending from about 2 months to about 5 years.

A method for making a controlled release system within the scope of our invention can have the steps of (a) dissolving a polymer in a solvent to form a polymer solution; (b) mixing or dispersing a neurotoxin in the polymer solution to form a polymer-neurotoxin mixture, and; (c) allowing the polymerneurotoxin mixture to set, thereby making a controlled release system. There can also be the step after the mixing step of evaporating solvent.

Additionally, a method for using a continuous release system within the scope of our invention can comprise injection or implantation of a controlled release system which includes a polymeric matrix, thereby treating a movement disorder or a disorder influenced by cholinergic innervation.

Finally, a method for forming a metal cation-complexed neurotoxin comprising the steps of (a) forming a solution containing a neurotoxin; (b) dispersing a multivalent metal cation component with the neurotoxin solution under pH conditions suitable for complexing the multivalent metal cation with the neurotoxin, thereby forming a metal cation-complexed neurotoxin suspension wherein the molar ratio of metal cation component to neurotoxin is between about 4:1 to about 100:1; and; (c) drying said suspension to form the metal cation-complexed neurotoxin.

The amount of a neurotoxin administered by a continuous release system within the scope of the present invention during a given period can be between about 10-3 U/kg and about 35 U/kg for a botulinum toxin type A and up to about 200 U/kg for other botulinum toxins, such as a botulinum toxin type B. 35 U/kg or 200 U/kg is an upper limit because it approaches a lethal dose of certain neurotoxins, such as botulinum toxin type A and botulinum toxin type B, respectively. Preferably, the amount of the neurotoxin administered by a continuous release system during a given period is between about 10-2 U/kg and about 25 U/kg. More preferably, the neurotoxin is administered in an amount of between about 10-1 U/kg and about 15 U/kg. Most preferably, the neurotoxin is administered in an amount of between about 1 U/kg and about 10 U/kg. In many instances, an administration of from about 1 units to about 500 units of a neurotoxin, such as a botulinum toxin type A, provides effective and long lasting therapeutic relief. More preferably, from about 5 units to about 300 units of a neurotoxin, such as a botulinum toxin type A, can be used and most preferably, from about 10 units to about 200 units of a neurotoxin, such as a botulinum toxin type A, can be locally administered into a target tissue with efficacious results. In a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention from about 1 units to about 100 units of a botulinum toxin, such as botulinum toxin type A, can be locally administered into a target tissue with therapeutically effective results.

The neurotoxin can be made by a Clostridial bacterium, such as by a Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium beratti or Clostridium tetani bacterium. Additionally, the neurotoxin can be a modified neurotoxin, that is a neurotoxin that has at least one of its amino acids deleted, modified or replaced, as compared to the native or wild type neurotoxin. Furthermore, the neurotoxin can be a recombinant produced neurotoxin or a derivative or fragment thereof.

The neurotoxin can be a botulinum toxin, such as one of the botulinum toxin serotypes A, B, C1, D, E, F or G. Preferably, the neurotoxin is botulinum toxin type A.

Significantly, the botulinum toxin can be is administered to by subdermal implantation to the patient by placement of a botulinum toxin implant. The botulinum toxin can administered to a muscle of a patient in an amount of between about 1 unit and about 10,000 units. When the botulinum toxin is botulinum toxin type A and the botulinum toxin can be administered to a muscle of the patient in an amount of between about 1 unit and about 100 units.

Notably, it has been reported that glandular tissue treated by a botulinum toxin can show a reduced secretory activity for as long as 27 months post injection of the toxin. Laryngoscope 1999; 109:1344-1346, Laryngoscope 1998;108:381-384.

Our invention relates to an implant for the controlled release of a neurotoxin and to methods for making and using such implants. The implant can comprise a polymer matrix containing a neurotoxin. The implant is designed to administer effective levels of neurotoxin over a prolonged period of time when administered, for example, intramuscularly, epidurally or subcutaneously for the treatment of various diseases conditions.

This invention further relates to a composition, and methods of making and using the composition, for the controlled of biologically active, stabilized neurotoxin. The controlled release composition of this invention can comprise a polymeric matrix of a biocompatible polymer and biologically active, stabilized neurotoxin dispersed within the biocompatible polymer.

Claim 1 of 18 Claims

We claim:

1. A controlled release system, comprising:

(a) a biodegradable polymer, and:

(b) a quantity of neurotoxin located within the biodegradable polymer, wherein fractional amounts of the neurotoxin can be released from the biodegradable polymer over a prolonged period of time, without a significant immune response.


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If you want to learn more about this patent, please go directly to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Web site to access the full patent.

 

 

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