Title: Composition and method for improved carbohydrate
management in mammals
United States Patent: 6,528,502
Issued: March 4, 2003
Inventors: Krumhar; Kim Carleton (Carlsbad, CA); Katke;
Jeffrey J. (San Clemente, CA)
Assignee: Metagenics, Inc. (San Clemente, CA)
Appl. No.: 633926
Filed: August 8, 2000
A nutritional supplement for use in managing carbohydrates and enhancing
anabolism in mammals is described. The nutritional supplement contains
regulated amounts of niacin, chromium, and vanadium, and optionally thiamin,
riboflavin, magnesium, and zinc. These vitamins and minerals mimic and/or
enhance the physiological effects of insulin in the body. A method of using
the composition is also described.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Before the present composition and method for improved carbohydrate
management in mammals are disclosed and described, it is to be understood
that this invention is not limited to the particular configurations, process
steps, and materials disclosed herein as such configurations, process steps,
and materials may vary somewhat. It is also to be understood that the
terminology employed herein is used for the purpose of describing particular
embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting since the scope of the
present invention will be limited only by the appended claims and
The publications and other reference materials referred to herein to
describe the background of the invention and to provide additional detail
regarding its practice are hereby incorporated by reference. The references
discussed herein are provided solely for their disclosure prior to the
filing date of the present application. Nothing herein is to be construed as
an admission that the inventors are not entitled to antedate such disclosure
by virtue of prior invention.
It must be noted that, as used in this specification and the appended
claims, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural referents
unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference
to a composition containing "an amino acid chelate" includes a mixture of
two or more of such amino acid chelates, reference to "a pharmaceutical
necessity" includes reference to one or more of such pharmaceutical
necessities, and reference to "a diluent" includes reference to a mixture of
two or more of such diluents.
In describing and claiming the present invention, the following terminology
will be used in accordance with the definitions set out herein.
As used herein, "comprising," "including," "containing," "characterized by,"
and grammatical equivalents thereof are inclusive or open-ended terms that
do not exclude additional, unrecited elements or method steps. "Comprising"
is to be interpreted as including the more restrictive terms "consisting of"
and "consisting essentially of."
As used herein, "consisting of" and grammatical equivalents thereof exclude
any element, step, or ingredient not specified in the claim.
As used herein, "consisting essentially of" and grammatical equivalents
thereof limit the scope of a claim to the specified materials or steps and
those that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristic or
characteristics of the claimed invention.
As used herein, "tablets" are solid pharmaceutical dosage forms containing
nutrient substances with or without suitable diluents and prepared either by
compression or molding methods well known in the art. Tablets have been in
widespread use since the latter part of the 19th century and their
popularity continues. Tablets remain popular as a dosage form because of the
advantages afforded both to the manufacturer (e.g., simplicity and economy
of preparation, stability, and convenience in packaging, shipping, and
dispensing) and the patient (e.g., accuracy of dosage, compactness,
portability, blandness of taste, and ease of administration). Although
tablets are most frequently discoid in shape, they may also be round, oval,
oblong, cylindrical, or triangular. They may differ greatly in size and
weight depending on the amount of nutrient substance present-and the
intended method of administration. They are divided into two general
classes, (1) compressed tablets, and (2) molded tablets or tablet
triturates. In addition to the active ingredient or ingredients, tablets
contain a number or inert materials or additives. A first group of such
additives includes those materials that help to impart satisfactory
compression characteristics to the formulation, including diluents, binders,
and lubricants. A second group of such additives helps to give additional
desirable physical characteristics to the finished tablet, such as
disintegrators, colors, flavors, and sweetening agents.
As used herein, "diluents" are inert substances added to increase the bulk
of the formulation to make the tablet a practical size for compression.
Commonly used diluents include calcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, lactose,
kaolin, mannitol, sodium chloride, dry starch, powdered sugar, silica, and
As used herein, "binders" are agents used to impart cohesive qualities to
the powdered material. Binders, or "granulators" as they are sometimes
known, impart a cohesiveness to the tablet formulation, which insures the
tablet remaining intact after compression, as well as improving the
free-flowing qualities by the formulation of granules of desired hardness
and size. Materials commonly used as binders include starch; gelatin;
sugars, such as sucrose, glucose, dextrose, molasses, and lactose; natural
and synthetic gums, such as acacia, sodium alginate, extract of Irish moss,
panwar gum, ghatti gum, mucilage of isapol husks, carboxymethylcellulose,
methylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, Veegum, microcrystalline cellulose,
microcrystalline dextrose, amylose, and larch arabogalactan, and the like.
As used herein, "lubricants" are materials that perform a number of
functions in tablet manufacture, such as improving the rate of flow of the
tablet granulation, preventing adhesion of the tablet material to the
surface of the dies and punches, reducing interparticle friction, and
facilitating the ejection of the tablets from the die cavity. Commonly used
lubricants include talc, magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, stearic acid,
and hydrogenated vegetable oils. Preferred amounts of lubricants range from
about 0.1% by weight to about 5% by weight.
As used herein, "disintegrators" or "disintegrants" are substances that
facilitate the breakup or disintegration of tablets after administration.
Materials serving as disintegrants have been chemically classified as
starches, clays, celluloses, algins, or gums. Other disintegrators include
Veegum HV, methylcellulose, agar, bentonite, cellulose and wood products,
natural sponge, cation-exchange resins, alginic acid, guar gum, citrus pulp,
cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone, carboxymethylcellulose, and the like.
As used herein, "coloring agents" are.agents that give tablets a more
pleasing appearance, and in addition help the manufacturer to control the
product during its preparation and help the user to identify the product.
Any of the approved certified water-soluble FD&C dyes, mixtures thereof, or
their corresponding lakes may be used to color tablets. A color lake is the
combination by adsorption of a water-soluble dye to a hydrous oxide of a
heavy metal, resulting in an insoluble form of the dye.
As used herein, "flavoring agents" vary considerably in their chemical
structure, ranging from simple esters, alcohols, and aldehydes to
carbohydrates and complex volatile oils. Synthetic flavors of almost any
desired type are now available.
As used herein, "microcrystalline cellulose" means purified, partially
depolymerized cellulose prepared by treating a-cellulose, obtained as a pulp
from fibrous plant material, with mineral acids. E.g., U.S. Pat. No.
3,141,875. Microcrystalline cellulose is used as a tablet diluent and
disintegrant. It is compressed into self-binding tablets that disintegrate
rapidly when placed in water.
As used herein, "stearic acid" means a mixture of stearic acid (C16
H36 O2 =284.48) and at palmitic acid (C16 H32 O2
=256.43), which together constitute not less than 90% of the total content,
wherein the content of C16 H36 O2 is not less than 40% of the
total. Stearic acid is used as an enteric tablet coating and formulation
As used herein, "magnesium stearate" means a compound of magnesium with a
mixture of solid organic acids obtained from fats, and chiefly consists of
variable proportions of magnesium stearate and magnesium palmitate. It is
used as a pharmaceutical necessity (lubricant) in the manufacture of
As used herein, "pharmaceutical necessities" means substances that are of
little or no therapeutic value, but which are useful in the manufacture and
compounding of various pharmaceutical preparations. These substances include
antioxidants and preservatives; coloring, flavoring, and diluting agents;
emulsifying and suspending agents; ointment bases; pharmaceutical solvents;
and miscellaneous agents. See Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences.
As used herein, "effective amount" means an amount of a vitamin or mineral
that is nontoxic but sufficient to provide the desired local or systemic
effect and performance at a reasonable benefit/risk ratio attending any
medical treatment. For example, an effective amount of a lubricant is an
amount sufficient to function for lubricating the composition for tableting
purposes without providing any detrimental effects.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, there is
provided a composition for use as a nutritional supplement. The formulation
preferably includes niacin, chromium, and vanadium, and optionally other
vitamins and minerals in optimal ratios to assure optimal delivery of the
vitamins and minerals to various tissues and organs, which are essential for
sustaining an anabolic physiological state and for managing carbohydrates in
humans and other mammals.
In its most fundamental form, the nutritional supplement composition of the
present invention includes a blend of niacin, chromium, and vanadium in the
Ranges in Parts by Weight
Basic Ingredients Preferred More Preferred
Niacin 1-3000 x 10-3 1-250 x 10-3
Chromium 1-2000 x 10-6 1-1000 x 10-6
Vanadium 1-25 x 10-3 1-20 x 10-3
Niacin (nicotinic acid) and niacinarnide (nicotinamide) have identical
properties as vitamins. Therefore, as used herein, "niacin" includes
niacinamide. In the body niacin is converted to niacinamide, which is an
essential constituent of coenzymes I and II that occur in a wide variety of
enzyme systems involved in anaerobic oxidation of carbohydrates. The
coenzyme serves as a hydrogen acceptor in the oxidation of the substrate.
These enzymes are present in all living cells and take part in many
reactions of biological oxidation. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are coenzymes
synthesized in the body that take part in the metabolism of all living
cells. Since they are of such widespread and vital importance, it is not
difficult to see why serious disturbance of metabolic processes occurs when
the supply of niacin to the cell is interrupted. Niacin is readily absorbed
from the intestinal tract, and large doses may be given orally or
parenterally with equal effect. Further, niacin improves circulation and
reduces the cholesterol level in the blood; maintains the nervous system;
helps metabolize protein, sugar & fat; reduces high blood pressure;
increases energy through proper utilization of food; prevents pellagra; and
helps maintain a healthy skin, tongue, and digestive system.
Further, niacin improves the efficiency of chromium and carbohydrate
utilization. Niacin is often recommended as the first drug of choice when
dietary intervention fails to adequately reduce elevated LDL cholesterol
levels. Niacin is also effective in decreasing triglycerides in total
cholesterol. Additionally, the vasodilating properties of niacin have been
used to enhance blood flow in a variety of vascular disturbances, including
conditions where vasospasms are considered to be part of the problem. Thus,
as used in the present formula, niacin is important for its ability to cause
blood vessels to dilate and its ability to reduce cholesterol levels.
Chromium is an important trace element wherein the lack of sufficient
chromium in the diet leads to impairment of glucose utilization, however,
disturbances in protein and lipid metabolism have also been observed.
Impaired glucose utilization occurs in many middle-aged and elderly human
beings. In experimental studies, significant numbers of such persons have
shown improvement in their glucose utilization after treatment with
chromium. Chromium is transported by transferrin in the plasma and competes
with iron for binding sites. Chromium as a dietary supplement may produce
benefits due to its enhancement of glucose utilization and its possible
facilitating the binding of insulin to insulin receptors, which increases
its effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chromium as a supplement
may produce benefits in atherosclerosis, diabetes, rheumatism, and weight
Chromium possesses properties that both mimic and enhance the effects of
insulin. When enhancing the effects of insulin, chromium indirectly assists
amino acid uptake by muscle, stimulates protein synthesis, and retards the
rate of protein breakdown. Additionally, by normalizing blood sugar,
biologically active chromium may break the cycle of alternating hyper- and
hypo-glycemia, with its consequence of overeating and weight gain. There
have been many anecdotal reports that chromium can curb sugar cravings.
Additionally, by promoting insulin-stimulated brain uptake of tryptophan, it
has also been found that chromium may aid brain synthesis of serotonin, a
neurotransmitter than helps control appetite and especially sugar cravings.
Additionally, since insulin stimulates protein synthesis and retards protein
breakdown in skeletal muscle and other tissues, the chromium potentiation of
this effect could be especially valuable to dieters by burning fat and to
athletes for the development of muscle.
Previous clinical studies with supplemental chromium have shown modest
improvements in glucose tolerance. A prime reason for the realization of
only modest improvements is attributed to the relatively poor absorption of
nutritional (trivalent) chromium. In this respect, trivalent chromium has a
strongly positive charge that impedes its movement across cell membranes.
Due to the presence of competing ions such as copper, iron, manganese, and
zinc in the human body, adequate absorption of chromium occurs best when the
metal is provided in chelated form, such as amino acid chelates, vitamin
acid chelates, and the like. An especially preferred form of chromium
according to the present invention is as chromium nicotinate glycinate.
Vanadium is an essential nutrient beneficial for thyroid hormone metabolism.
The daily requirement necessary to prevent a deficiency is about 10 to 20
micrograms per day. Vanadium deficiency can lead to slow growth, defective
bones, and altered lipid metabolism. Vanadium exerts an insulin-like effect
in some respects, and there has been a considerable amount of research on
vanadium and diabetes. In insulin dependent diabetics, vanadium has been
found to reduce the amount of insulin required to manage the disease, and in
non-insulin dependent diabetics, vanadium has been known to control the
condition altogether. Research has shown that supplementation with vanadium
leads to an increase in glucose transport into cells, which suggests that
vanadium supplementation of the diet improves glucose metabolism and may aid
in preventing diabetes.
Once ingested, vanadium typically is transformed into vanadate, the salt
form of vanadic acid. It has been found that vanadate ions will mimic all or
most of the action of insulin in intact cell systems via a post-receptor
mechanism. In various tissues certain metabolic effects of insulin require
phosphorylation reactions. Phosphorylation generally means a metabolic
process of introducing a phosphate group into an organic molecule. For
example, when insulin binds the fat cells, it causes phosphorylation of the
amino acids, threonine, tyrosine, and serine in the insulin receptors of the
fat cells and thus stimulates glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, and
glucose oxidation. It has been found that vanadate, like insulin, also
causes phosphorylation of the insulin receptors of fat cells and thus
stimulates glucose transport, activates glycogen synthase, and increases
glycogen synthesis in the fat cells. Indeed, experimental studies have
concluded that vanadate and insulin cause qualitatively similar changes in
muscle glucose metabolism. These studies have also indicated that the
ability of vanadate to mimic insulin action may be attributed to either the
anion's ability to participate in reduction-oxidation processes, or to
regulate (inhibit) phosphotransferase activity.
It has been found that vanadate stimulates carbohydrate uptake in the liver.
In contrast, insulin does not stimulate glucose transport in this tissue,
although insulin binding and stimulation of diverse biochemical processes
have been previously demonstrated. Additionally it has also been found that
vanadate does not increase serum insulin levels, which therefore suggests
that insulin target tissues themselves are not the site of vanadate action.
As previously indicated, vanadate is operable to activate glycogen synthase.
Glycogen synthase is an enzyme that causes the conversion of glucose into
glycogen. Glycogen itself is a polysaccharide that is the chief carbohydrate
storage material in humans. It has been found that maximum glycogen synthase
activation produced by vanadate is indistinguishable from that of insulin.
Evidence that strongly suggests a common mechanism of action for insulin and
vanadate includes the following findings: with maximum insulin, additional
quantities of vanadate are without effect; with submaximal insulin,
additional quantities of vanadate increase both the glycogen synthase
activation state and 2-deoxyglucose transport to the level obtained with
maximum insulin; insulin and vanadate counteract the activating effect of
adrenalin on glycogen phosphorylase in a similar manner, adrenalin partially
reverses vandate and insulin activated glycogen synthase in a similar
manner; and vanadate and insulin activate glycogen synthase within similar
time frames. Thus, the presence of in vivo vanadate from the ingestion of
vanadium can lead to stable, long lasting, normoglycemic and anabolic states
and restore tissue responsiveness to insulin without apparent signs of
It is also preferable that the formulation contain one or more additional
ingredients selected from the group consisting of vitamins and minerals that
enhance the utilization of carbohydrates. Preferred formulations and ranges
of these ingredients are:
Ranges in Parts by Weight
Additional Ingredients Preferred More Preferred
Thiamin 15-3000 x 10-3 15-100 x
Riboflavin 1-1000 x 10-3 1-500 x
Magnesium 25-2500 x 10-3 25-250 x
Zinc 1-100 x 10-3 1-50 x 10-3
Riboflavin is another B vitamin, which plays its physiological role as the
prosthetic group of a number of enzyme systems that are involved in the
oxidation of carbohydrates and amino acids. It functions in combination with
a specific protein either as a mononucleotide containing phosphoric acid (FMN),
or as a dinucleotide combined through phosphoric acid with adenine (FAD).
The specificity of each of the enzymes is determined by the protein in the
complex. By a process of oxidation-reduction, riboflavin in the system
either gains or loses hydrogen. The substrate, either carbohydrate or amino
acid, may be oxidized by a removal of hydrogen. The first hydrogen acceptor
in the chain of events is NAD or NADP, the di- or tri-nucleotide containing
nicotinic acid and adenine. The oxidized riboflavin system then serves as
hydrogen acceptor for the coenzyme system and in turn is oxidized by the
cytochrome system. The hydrogen is finally passed on to the oxygen to
complete the oxidative cycle. A number of flavoprotein enzymes have been
identified, each of which is specific for a given substrate. Riboflavin also
aids in the formation of antibodies and red blood cells; maintains cell
respiration; necessary for the maintenance of good vision, skin, nails and
hair; alleviates eye fatigue; and promotes general health.
Thiamin or thiamine is a generic term applied to all substances possessing
vitamin B-1 activity, regardless of the anion attached to the molecule. The
cationic portion of the molecule is made up of a substituted pyrimidine ring
connected by a methylene bridge to the nitrogen of a substituted thiazole
ring. In a phosphorylated form, thiamine serves as the prosthetic group of
enzyme systems that are concerned with the decarboxylation of .alpha.-ketoacids.
Some decarboxylation reactions are reversible, so that synthesis
(condensation) may be achieved. Thus, thiamine is also important to the
biosynthesis of keto-acids. It is involved in transketolase reactions.
Thiamine is readily absorbed in aqueous solution from both the small and
large intestine, and is then carried to the liver by the portal circulation.
In the liver, as well as in all living cells, it normally combines with
phosphate to form cocarboxylase. It may be stored in the liver in this form
or it may combine further with manganese and specific proteins to become
active enzymes known as carboxylases. Thiamine also plays a key role in the
body's metabolic cycle for generating energy; aids in the digestion of
carbohydrates; is essential for the normal functioning of the nervous
system, muscles & heart; stabilizes the appetite; and promotes growth & good
Magnesium is the second most plentiful cation of the intracellular fluids.
It is essential for the activity of many enzyme systems and plays an
important role with regard to neurochemical transmission and muscular
excitability. Deficits are accompanied by a variety of structural and
functional disturbances. The average 70-kg adult has about 2000 mEq of
magnesium in his body. About 50% of this magnesium is found in bone, 45%
exists as an intracellular cation, and 5% is in the extracellular fluid.
About 30% of the magnesium in the skeleton represents an exchangeable pool
present either within the hydration shell or on the crystal surface.
Mobilization of the cation from this pool in bone is fairly rapid in
children, but not in adults. The larger fraction of magnesium in bone is
apparently an integral part of bone crystal.
The average adult in the United States ingests about 20 to 40 mEq of
magnesium per day in an ordinary diet, and of this about one third is
absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The evidence suggests that the
bulk of the absorption occurs in the upper small bowel. Absorption is by
means of an active process apparently closely related to the transport
system for calcium. Ingestion of low amounts of magnesium results in
increased absorption of calcium and vice versa.
Magnesium is a cofactor of all enzymes involved in phosphate transfer
reactions that utilize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other nucleotide
triphosphates as substrates. Various phosphatases and pyrophosphatases also
represent enzymes from an enormous list that are influenced by this metallic
Magnesium plays a vital role in the reversible association of intracellular
particles and in the binding of macromolecules to subcellular organelles.
For example, the binding of messenger RNA (mRNA) to ribosomes is magnesium
dependent, as is the functional integrity of ribosomal subunits. Certain of
the effects of magnesium on the nervous system are similar to those of
calcium. An increased concentration of magnesium in the extracellular fluid
causes depression of the central nervous system (CNS). Hypomagnesemia causes
increased CNS irritability, disorientation, and convulsions. Magnesium also
has a direct depressant effect on skeletal muscle. Abnormally low
concentrations of magnesium in the extracellular fluid result in increased
acetylcholine release and increased muscle excitability that can produce
Zinc is known to occur in many important metalloenzymes. These include
carbonic anhydrase, carboxypeptidases A and B, alcohol dehydrogenase,
glutamic dehydrogenase, D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactic
dehydrogenase, malic dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and aldolase.
Impaired synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins has been observed in zinc
deficiency. There is also evidence that zinc may be involved in the
secretion of insulin and in the function of the hormone.
The mineral ingredients in the present invention can be supplied as
inorganic salts, such as chlorides, sulfates, nitrates, and the like;
organic salts, such as citrates, tartrates, bitartrates, lactates,
phosphates, malates, maleates, fumarates, succinates, acetates, palmeates,
stearates, oleates, palmitates, laurates, valerates, taurinates, and the
like, or in bioavailable form, such as amino acid chelates. For example,
preferred forms of the chromium, vanadium, magnesium, and zinc minerals are
chromium nicotinate glycinate, vanadyl sulfate, magnesium taurinate, and
zinc taurinate, respectively.
Bioavailable forms of magnesium, zinc, and chromium, which are utilized in
facilitating anabolism, are made by chelating or complexing the mineral with
an amino acid or peptide ligand. The ligand to mineral ratio in these
chelates is at least 1:1 and is preferably 2:1 or higher. The molecular
weight of these amino acid chelates is not greater than 1,500 daltons and
preferably does not exceed 1,000 daltons. Such amino acid chelates are
stable and are generally taught in the prior art to be absorbed intact
through the intestinal tract via an active dipeptide transport system. It
has not previously been known that, when properly administered, such
chelates can cooperate with properly blended vitamins to improve management
of carbohydrates and affect sustained anabolism. Such amino acid chelates
have a stability constant of between about 106 and 1016. A more
detailed description of such chelates and the method by which they are
absorbed through the intestine is documented in U.S. Pat. No. 4,863,898 and
also in H.D. Ashmead et al., Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions and
Chelates, (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1985).
To clarify what is meant by the term "amino acid chelate" the American
Association of Feed Control Officials has issued the following official
definition: "amino acid chelate-a metal ion from a soluble salt with amino
acids with a mole ratio of one mole of metal to one to three (preferably
two) moles of amino acids to form coordinate covalent bonds. The average
weight of the hydrolyzed amino acids must be approximately 150 and the
resulting molecular weight of the chelate must not exceed 800." It is also
now well documented that amino acid chelates can be prepared from metal ions
that do not come from soluble salts. U.S. Pat. No. 4,599,152 and U.S. Pat.
No. 4,830,716 both disclose methods of preparing pure or pharmaceutical
grade amino acid chelates using metal sources other than soluble metal
salts. While, the manner these amino acid chelates are made is not essential
to the present invention, provided they meet the criteria stated above, it
is preferable that pharmaceutical grade chelates be used to minimize the
presence of unwanted impurities such as sulfate ions, excess chloride ions,
and the like.
As referenced above, various studies have found that minerals in the form of
amino acid chelates, composed of amino acid ligands or combinations of amino
acid and vitamin acid ligands, (e.g., glycinates, arginates, and nicotinate
glycinates), render the minerals more readily absorbable. The reason for
this is the transport of amino acid chelates across the intestinal mucosa
and into the portal circulation is accomplished by an amino acid transport
mechanism and not by traditional mineral ion transport. Once in the blood,
the amino acid chelates do not bind directly to serum proteins, including
albumin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, and the like, but are transported
directly to target tissues in the chelated form. Thereafter, the mineral is
released from the chelate intracellularly. Importantly, this indirect
transport results in greatly improved bioavailability of the minerals to
organs and cells and works independently of either mineral-saturated or
reduced concentrations of serum proteins. Additionally, unlike most
conventional mineral salts that are commercially available, amino acid
chelates do not cause changes in bowel habits after oral administration.
This is in contrast to notable examples of conventional magnesium salts such
as magnesium citrate, which commonly causes loose stools or diarrhea.
While the amino acid or peptide ligands used in formulating the amino acid
chelates are in themselves important nutrients, they may or may not be
present in sufficient amounts to materially contribute as protein calorie
sources in the present invention. In any event, they are important factors
in furthering the cause of anabolism.
The composition of the present invention can be formulated in any
conventional dosage form, such as tablets, capsules, powders, liquids, and
the like. Preferably, the composition is formulated as a tablet, and as such
can include formulation aids or pharmaceutical necessities according to
methods and procedures well known in the art. In general, the ingredients
are mixed together and then formed into tablets under pressure in a press.
The preferred daily dosage of the composition ranges from about 1-20 mg of
active ingredients per kg of body weight. For use as a basic nutritional
supplement, it is recommended that a 70-kg person take about three tablets
containing about 140 mg of active ingredients with high carbohydrate meals
per day. As a dietary supplement for athletes, it is recommended that two
140-mg tablets be taken with a high complex carbohydrate snack about half an
hour before activity or a workout. On non-active days the composition can be
taken as a basic nutritional supplement.
Claim 1 of 1 Claim
What is claimed is:
1. A method for enhancing the physiological effects of insulin comprising
administering an effective amount of a nutritional supplement consisting
(a) 25x10-3 parts by weight of niacin;
(b) 200x10-6 parts by weight of chromium nicotinate glycinate;
(c) 5x10-3 parts by weight of vanadyl sulfate;
(d) 25x10-3 parts by weight of thiamin;
(e) 10x10-3 parts by weight of riboflavin;
(f) 70x10-3 parts by weight of magnesium taurinate;
(g) 5x10-3 parts by weight of zinc taurinate;
(h) effective amounts of microcrystalline cellulose, stearic acid, and
magnesium stearate as formulation aids.
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