Title: Method for making humanized antibodies
United States Patent: 6,639,055
Issued: October 28, 2003
Inventors: Carter; Paul J. (San Francisco, CA); Presta; Leonard G. (San Francisco, CA)
Assignee: Genentech, Inc. (South San Francisco, CA)
Appl. No.: 705686
Filed: November 2, 2000
Variant immunoglobulins, particularly humanized antibody polypeptides are provided, along with methods for their preparation and use. Consensus immunoglobulin sequences and structural models are also provided.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Suitable Methods for Practicing the Invention
Some aspects of this invention include obtaining an import, non-human antibody variable domain, producing a desired humanized antibody sequence and for humanizing an antibody gene sequence are described below. A particularly preferred method of changing a gene sequence, such as gene conversion from a non-human or consensus sequence into a humanized nucleic acid sequence, is the cassette mutagenesis procedure described in Example 1. Additionally, methods are given for obtaining and producing antibodies generally, which apply equally to native non-human antibodies as well as to humanized antibodies.
Generally, the antibodies and antibody variable domains of this invention are conventionally prepared in recombinant cell culture, as described in more detail below. Recombinant synthesis is preferred for reasons of safety and economy, but it is known to prepare peptides by chemical synthesis and to purify them from natural sources; such preparations are included within the definition of antibodies herein.
An integral step in our approach to antibody humanization is construction of computer graphics models of the import and humanized antibodies. These models are used to determine if the six complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) can be successfully transplanted from the import framework to a human one and to determine which framework residues from the import antibody, if any, need to be incorporated into the humanized antibody in order to maintain CDR conformation. In addition, analysis of the sequences of the import and humanized antibodies and reference to the models can help to discern which framework residues are unusual and thereby might be involved in antigen binding or maintenance of proper antibody structure.
All of the humanized antibody models of this invention are based on a single three-dimensional computer graphics structure hereafter referred to as the consensus structure. This consensus structure is a key distinction from the approach of previous workers in the field, who typically begin by selecting a human antibody structure which has an amino acid sequence which is similar to the sequence of their import antibody.
The consensus structure of one embodiment of this invention was built in five steps as described below.
Step 1: Seven Fab X-ray crystal structures from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank were used (entries 2FB4, 2RHE, 3FAB, and 1REI which are human structures, and 2MCP, 1FBJ, and 2HFL which are murine structures). For each structure, protein mainchain geometry and hydrogen bonding patterns were used to assign each residue to one of three secondary structure types: alpha-helix, beta-strand or other (i.e. non-helix and non-strand). The immunoglobulin residues used in superpositioning and those included in the consensus structure are shown in Table 1.
TABLE I Immunoglobulin Residues Used in Superpositioning and Those Included in the Consensus Structure Iga 2FB4 2RHE 2MCP 3FAB 1FBJ 2HFL 1REI Consensusb VL.kappa. domain 2-11 18-24 18-24 19-25 18-24 19-25 19-25 19-25 16-27 32-37 34-39 39-44 32-37 32-37 32-37 33-38 33-39 41-49 60-66 62-68 67-72 53-66 60-65 60-65 61-66 59-77 69-74 71-76 76-81 69-74 69-74 69-74 70-75 84-88 86-90 91-95 84-88 84-88 84-88 85-89 82-91 101-105 RMSc 0.40 0.60 0.53 0.54 0.48 0.50 VH domain 3-8 18-25 18-25 18-25 18-25 18-25 17-23 34-39 34-39 34-39 34-39 34-39 33-41 46-52 46-52 46-52 46-52 46-52 45-51 57-61 59-63 56-60 57-61 57-61 57-61 68-71 70-73 67-70 68-71 68-71 66-71 78-84 80-86 77-83 78-84 78-84 75-82 92-99 94-101 91-98 92-99 92-99 88-94 102-108 RMSc 0.43 0.85 0.62 0.91 RMSd 0.91 0.73 0.77 0.92 a Four-letter code for Protein Data Bank file. b Residue numbers for the crystal structures are taken from the Protein Data Bank files. Residue numbers for the consensus structure are according to Kabat et al. c Root-mean-square deviation in .ANG. for (N, Ca, C) atoms superimposed on 2FB4. d Root-mean-square deviation in .ANG. for (N, Ca, C) atoms superimposed on 2HFL.
Step 2: Having identified the alpha-helices and beta-strands in each of the seven structures, the structures were superimposed on one another using the INSIGHT computer program (Biosym Technologies, San Diego, Calif.) as follows: The 2FB4 structure was arbitrarily chosen as the template (or reference) structure. The 2FB4 was held fixed in space and the other six structures rotated and translated in space so that their common secondary structural elements (i.e. alpha-helices and beta-strands) were oriented such that these common elements were as close in position to one another as possible. (This superpositioning was performed using accepted mathematical formulae rather than actually physically moving the structures by hand.)
Step 3: With the seven structures thus superimposed, for each residue in the template (2FB4) Fab one calculates the distance from the template alpha-carbon atom (C.alpha.) to the analogous C.alpha. atom in each of the other six superimposed structures. This results in a table of C.alpha.--C.alpha. distances for each residue position in the sequence. Such a table is necessary in order to determine which residue positions will be included in the consensus model. Generally, if all C.alpha.--C.alpha. distances for a given residue position were .ltoreq.0.1 .ANG., that position was included in the consensus structure. If for a given position only one Fab crystal structure was >1.0 .ANG., the position was included but the outlying crystal structure was not included in the next step (for this position only). In general, the seven .beta.-strands were included in the consensus structure while some of the loops connecting the .beta.-strands, e.g. complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), were not included in view of C.alpha. divergence.
Step 4: For each residue which was included in the consensus structure after step 3, the average of the coordinates for individual mainchain N, C.alpha., C, O and C.beta. atoms were calculated. Due to the averaging procedure, as well as variation in bond length, bond angle and dihedral angle among the crystal structures, this "average" structure contained some bond lengths and angles which deviated from standard geometry. For purposes of this invention, "standard geometry" is understood to include geometries commonly accepted as typical, such as the compilation of bond lengths and angles from small molecule structures in Weiner, S. J. et al., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 106: 765-784 (1984).
Step 5: In order to correct these deviations, the final step was to
subject the "average" structure to 50 cycles of energy minimization
(DISCOVER program, Biosym Technologies) using the AMBER (Weiner, S. J. et
al., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 106: 765-784 (1984)) parameter set with only the
C.alpha. coordinates fixed (i.e. all other atoms are allowed to move)
(energy minimization is described below). This allowed any deviant bond
lengths and angles to assume a standard (chemically acceptable) geometry.
See Table II.
TABLE II Average Bond Lengths and Angles for "Average" (Before) and Energy-Minimized Consensus (After 50 Cycles) Structures VL.kappa. VL.kappa. VH VH Standard before after before after Geometry (.ANG.) (.ANG.) (.ANG.) (.ANG.) (.ANG.) N--C.alpha. 1.459(0.012) 1.451(0.004) 1.451(0.023) 1.452(0.004) 1.449 C.alpha.--C 1.515(0.012) 1.523(0.005) 1.507(0.033) 1.542(0.005) 1.522 O.dbd.C 1.208(0.062) 1.229(0.003) 1.160(0.177) 1.231(0.003) 1.229 C--N 1.288(0.049) 1.337(0.002) 1.282(0.065) 1.335(0.004) 1.335 C.alpha.--C.beta. 1.508(0.026) 1.530(0.002) 1.499(0.039) 1.530(0.002) 1.526 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) C--N--C.alpha. 123.5(4.2) 123.8(1.1) 125.3(4.6) 124.0(1.1) 121.9 N--C.alpha.--C 110.0(4.0) 109.5(1.9) 110.3(2.8) 109.5(1.6) 110.1 C.alpha.--C--N 116.6(4.0) 116.6(1.2) 117.6(5.2) 116.6(0.8) 116.6 O.dbd.C--N 123.1(4.1) 123.4(0.6) 122.2(4.9) 123.3(0.4) 122.9 N--C.alpha.--C.beta. 110.3(2.1) 109.8(0.7) 110.6(2.5) 109.8(0.6) 109.5 C.beta.--C.alpha.--C 111.4(2.4) 111.1(0.7) 111.2(2.2) 111.1(0.6) 111.1 Values in parentheses are standard deviations. Note that while some bond length and angle averages did not change appreciably after energy-minimization, the corresponding standard deviations are reduced due to deviant geometries assuming standard values after energy-minimization. Standard geometry values are from the AMBER forcefield as implemented in DISCOVER (Biosym Technologies).
The consensus structure might conceivably be dependent upon which crystal structure was chosen as the template on which the others were superimposed. As a test, the entire procedure was repeated using the crystal structure with the worst superposition versus 2FB4, i.e. the 2HFL Fab structure, as the new template (reference). The two consensus structures compare favorably (root-mean-squared deviation of 0.11 .ANG. for all N, C.alpha. and C atoms).
Note that the consensus structure only includes mainchain (N, C.alpha., C, O, C.beta. atoms) coordinates for only those residues which are part of a conformation common to all seven X-ray crystal structures. For the Fab structures, these include the common .beta.-strands (which comprise two .beta.-sheets) and a few non-CDR loops which connect these .beta.-strands. The consensus structure does not include CDRs or sidechains, both of which vary in their conformation among the seven structures. Also, note that the consensus structure includes only the VL and VH domains.
This consensus structure is used as the archetype. It is not particular to any species, and has only the basic shape without side chains. Starting with this consensus structure the model of any import, human, or humanized Fab can be constructed as follows. Using the amino acid sequence of the particular antibody VL and VH domains of interest, a computer graphics program (such as INSIGHT, Biosym Technologies) is used to add sidechains and CDRs to the consensus structure. When a sidechain is added, its conformation is chosen on the basis of known Fab crystal structures (see the Background section for publications of such crystal structures) and rotamer libraries (Ponder, J. W. & Richards, F. M., J. Mol. Biol. 193: 775-791 (1987)). The model also is constructed so that the atoms of the sidechain are positioned so as to not collide with other atoms in the Fab.
CDRs are added to the model (now having the backbone plus side chains) as follows. The size (i.e. number of amino acids) of each import CDR is compared to canonical CDR structures tabulated by Chothia et al., Nature, 342:877-883 (1989)) and which were derived from Fab crystals. Each CDR sequence is also reviewed for the presence or absence of certain specific amino acid residues which are identified by Chothia as structurally important: e.g. light chain residues 29 (CDR1) and 95 (CDR3), and heavy chain residues 26, 27, 29 (CDR1) and 55 (CDR2). For light chain CDR2, and heavy chain CDR3, only the size of the CDR is compared to the Chothia canonical structure. If the size and sequence (i.e. inclusion of the specific, structurally important residues as denoted by Chothia et al.) of the import CDR agrees in size and has the same structurally important residues as those of a canonical CDR, then the mainchain conformation of the import CDR in the model is taken to be the same as that of the canonical CDR. This means that the import sequence is assigned the structural configuration of the canonical CDR, which is then incorporated in the evolving model.
However, if no matching canonical CDR can be assigned for the import CDR, then one of two options can be exercised. First, using a program such as INSIGHT (Biosym Technologies), the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank can be searched for loops with a similar size to that of the import CDR and these loops can be evaluated as possible conformations for the import CDR in the model. Minimally, such loops must exhibit a conformation in which no loop atom overlaps with other protein atoms. Second, one can use available programs which calculate possible loop conformations, assuming a given loop size, using methods such as described by Bruccoleri et al., Nature 335: 564-568 (1988).
When all CDRs and sidechains have been added to the consensus structure to give the final model (import, human or humanized), the model is preferably subjected to energy minimization using programs which are available commercially (e.g. DISCOVER, Biosym Technologies). This technique uses complex mathematical formulae to refine the model by performing such tasks as checking that all atoms are within appropriate distances from one another and checking that bond lengths and angles are within chemically acceptable limits.
Models of a humanized, import or human antibody sequence are used in the practice of this invention to understand the impact of selected amino acid residues of the activity of the sequence being modeled. For example, such a model can show residues which may be important in antigen binding, or for maintaining the conformation of the antibody, as discussed in more detail below. Modeling can also be used to explore the potential impact of changing any amino acid residue in the antibody sequence.
Methods for Obtaining a Humanized Antibody Sequence
In the practice of this invention, the first step in humanizing an import antibody is deriving a consensus amino acid sequence into which to incorporate the import sequences. Next a model is generated for these sequences using the methods described above. In certain embodiments of this invention, the consensus human sequences are derived from the most abundant subclasses in the sequence compilation of Kabat et al. (Kabat, E. A. et al., Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 1987)), namely VL .kappa. subgroup I and VH group III, and have the sequences indicated in the definitions above.
While these steps may be taken in different order, typically a structure for the candidate humanized antibody is created by transferring the at least one CDR from the non-human, import sequence into the consensus human structure, after the entire corresponding human CDR has been removed. The humanized antibody may contain human replacements of the non-human import residues at positions within CDRs as defined by sequence variability (Kabat, E. A. et al., Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 1987)) or as defined by structural variability (Chothia, C. & Lesk, A. M., J. Mol. Biol. 196:901-917 (1987)). For example, huMAb4D5 contains human replacements of the muMAb4D5 residues at three positions within CDRs as defined by sequence variability (Kabat, E. A. et al., Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 1987)) but not as defined by structural variability (Chothia, C. & Lesk, A. M., J. Mol. Biol. 196:901-917 (1987)): VL -CDR1 K24R, VL -CDR2 R54L and VL -CDR2 T56S.
Differences between the non-human import and the human consensus framework residues are individually investigated to determine their possible influence on CDR conformation and/or binding to antigen. Investigation of such possible influences is desirably performed through modeling, by examination of the characteristics of the amino acids at particular locations, or determined experimentally through evaluating the effects of substitution or mutagenesis of particular amino acids.
In certain preferred embodiments of this invention, a humanized antibody is made comprising amino acid sequence of an import, non-human antibody and a human antibody, utilizing the steps of:
a. obtaining the amino acid sequences of at least a portion of an import antibody variable domain and of a consensus human variable domain;
b. identifying Complementarity Determining Region (CDR) amino acid sequences in the import and the human variable domain sequences;
c. substituting an import CDR amino acid sequence for the corresponding human CDR amino acid sequence;
d. aligning the amino acid sequences of a Framework Region (FR) of the import antibody and the corresponding FR of the consensus antibody;
e. identifying import antibody FR residues in the aligned FR sequences that are non-homologous to the corresponding consensus antibody residues;
f. determining if the non-homologous import amino acid residue is reasonably expected to have at least one of the following effects;
1. non-covalently binds antigen directly,
2. interacts with a CDR; or
3. participates in the VL -VH interface; and
g. for any non-homologous import antibody amino acid residues which is reasonably expected to have at least one of these effects, substituting that residue for the corresponding amino acid residue in the consensus antibody FR sequence.
Optionally, one determines if any non-homologous residues identified in step (e) are exposed on the surface of the domain or buried within it, and if the residue is exposed but has none of the effects identified in step (f), one may retain the consensus residue.
Additionally, in certain embodiments the corresponding consensus antibody residues identified in step (e) above are selected from the group consisting of 4L, 35L, 36L, 38L, 43L, 44L, 46L, 58L, 62L, 63L, 64L, 65L, 66L, 67L, 68L, 69L, 70L, 71L, 73L, 85L, 87L, 98L, 2H, 4H, 24H, 36H, 37H, 39H, 43H, 45H, 49H, 58H, 60H, 67H, 68H, 69H, 70H, 73H, 74H, 75H, 76H, 78H, 91H, 92H, 93H, and 103H (utilizing the numbering system set forth in Kabat, E. A. et al., Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 1987).
In preferred embodiments, the method of this invention comprises the additional steps of searching either or both of the import, non-human and the consensus variable domain sequences for glycosylation sites, determining if the glycosylation is reasonably expected to be important for the desired antigen binding and biological activity of the antibody (i.e., determining if the glycosylation site binds to antigen or changes a side chain of an amino acid residue that binds to antigen, or if the glycosylation enhances or weakens antigen binding, or is important for maintaining antibody affinity). If the import sequence bears the glycosylation site, it is preferred to substitute that site for the corresponding residues in the consensus human sequence if the glycosylation site is reasonably expected to be important. If only the consensus sequence, and not the import, bears the glycosylation site, it is preferred to eliminate that glycosylation site or substitute therefor the corresponding amino acid residues from the import sequence.
Another preferred embodiment of the methods of this invention comprises aligning import antibody and the consensus antibody FR sequences, identifying import antibody FR residues which are non-homologous with the aligned consensus FR sequence, and for each such non-homologous import antibody FR residue, determining if the corresponding consensus antibody residue represents a residue which is highly conserved across all species at that site, and if it is so conserved, preparing a humanized antibody which comprises the consensus antibody amino acid residue at that site.
In certain alternate embodiments, one need not utilize the modeling and evaluation steps described above, and may instead proceed with the steps of obtaining the amino acid sequence of at least a portion of an import, non-human antibody variable domain having a CDR and a FR, obtaining the amino acid sequence of at least a portion of a consensus human antibody variable domain having a CDR and a FR, substituting the non-human CDR for the human CDR in the consensus human antibody variable domain, and then substituting an amino acid residue for the consensus amino acid residue at at least one of the following sites:
a. (in the FR of the variable domain of the light chain), 4L, 35L, 36L, 38L, 43L, 44L, 58L, 46L, 62L, 63L, 64L, 65L, 66L, 67L, 68L, 69L, 70L, 71L, 73L, 85L, 87L, 98L, or
b. (in the FR of the variable domain of the heavy chain) 2H, 4H, 24H, 36H, 37H, 39H, 43H, 45H, 49H, 58H, 60H, 67H, 68H, 69H, 70H, 73H, 74H, 75H, 76H, 78H, 91H, 92H, 93H, and 103H.
Preferably, the non-CDR residue substituted at the consensus FR site is the residue found at the corresponding location of the non-human antibody. If desired, one may utilize the other method steps described above for determining whether a particular amino acid residue can reasonably be expected to have undesirable effects, and remedying those effects.
If after making a humanized antibody according to the steps above and testing its activity one is not satisfied with the humanized antibody, one preferably reexamines the potential effects of the amino acids at the specific locations recited above. Additionally, it is desirable to reinvestigate any buried residues which are reasonably expected to affect the VL -VH interface but may not directly effect CDR conformation. It is also desirable to reevaluate the humanized antibody utilizing the steps of the methods claimed herein.
In certain embodiments of this invention, amino acid residues in the consensus human sequence are substituted for by other amino acid residues. In preferred embodiments, residues from a particular non-human import sequence are substituted, however there are circumstances where it is desired to evaluate the effects of other amino acids. For example, if after making a humanized antibody according to the steps above and testing its activity one is not satisfied with the humanized antibody, one may compare the sequences of other classes or subgroups of human antibodies, or classes or subgroups of antibodies from the particular non-human species, and determine which other amino acid side chains and amino acid residues are found at particular locations and substituting such other residues.
Certain aspects of this invention are directed to natural antibodies and to monoclonal antibodies, as illustrated in the Examples below and by antibody hybridomas deposited with the ATCC (as described below). Thus, the references throughout this description to the use of monoclonal antibodies are intended to include the use of natural or native antibodies as well as humanized and chimeric antibodies. As used herein, the term "antibody" includes the antibody variable domain and other separable antibody domains unless specifically excluded.
In accordance with certain aspects of this invention, antibodies to be humanized (import antibodies) are isolated from continuous hybrid cell lines formed by the fusion of antigen-primed immune lymphocytes with myeloma cells.
In certain embodiments, the antibodies of this invention are obtained by routine screening. Polyclonal antibodies to an antigen generally are raised in animals by multiple subcutaneous (sc) or intraperitoneal (ip) injections of the antigen and an adjuvant. It may be useful to conjugate the antigen or a fragment containing the target amino acid sequence to a protein that is immunogenic in the species to be immunized, e.g., keyhole limpet hemocyanin, serum albumin, bovine thyroglobulin, or soybean trypsin inhibitor using a bifunctional or derivatizing agent, for example, maleimidobenzoyl sulfosuccinimide ester (conjugation through cysteine residues), N-hydroxysuccinimide (through lysine residues), glutaraldehyde, succinic anhydride, SOCl2, or R1 N=C=NR, where R and R1 are different alkyl groups.
The route and schedule of the host animal or cultured antibody-producing cells therefrom are generally in keeping with established and conventional techniques for antibody stimulation and production. While mice are frequently employed as the test model, it is contemplated that any mammalian subject including human subjects or antibody-producing cells obtained therefrom can be manipulated according to the processes of this invention to serve as the basis for production of mammalian, including human, hybrid cell lines.
Animals are typically immunized against the immunogenic conjugates or derivatives by combining 1 mg or 1 .mu.g of conjugate (for rabbits or mice, respectively) with 3 volumes of Freund's complete adjuvant and injecting the solution intradermally at multiple sites. One month later the animals are boosted with 1/5 to 1/10 the original amount of conjugate in Freund's complete adjuvant (or other suitable adjuvant) by subcutaneous injection at multiple sites. 7 to 14 days later animals are bled and the serum is assayed for antigen titer. Animals are boosted until the titer plateaus. Preferably, the animal is boosted with the conjugate of the same antigen, but conjugated to a different protein and/or through a different cross-linking agent. Conjugates also can be made in recombinant cell culture as protein fusions. Also, aggregating agents such as alum are used to enhance the immune response.
After immunization, monoclonal antibodies are prepared by recovering immune lymphoid cells--typically spleen cells or lymphocytes from lymph node tissue--from immunized animals and immortalizing the cells in conventional fashion, e.g. by fusion by myeloma cells or by Epstein-Barr (EB)-virus transformation and screening for clones expressing the desired antibody. The hybridoma technique described originally by Kohler and Milstein, Eur. J. Immunol. 6:511 (1976) has been widely applied to produce hybrid cell lines that secrete high levels of monoclonal antibodies against many specific antigens.
It is possible to fuse cells of one species with another. However, it is preferable that the source of the immunized antibody producing cells and the myeloma be from the same species.
The hybrid cell lines can be maintained in culture in vitro in cell culture media. The cell lines of this invention can be selected and/or maintained in a composition comprising the continuous cell line in hypoxanthine-aminopterin thymidine (HAT) medium. In fact, once the hybridoma cell line is established, it can be maintained on a variety of nutritionally adequate media. Moreover, the hybrid cell lines can be stored and preserved in any number of conventional ways, including freezing and storage under liquid nitrogen. Frozen cell lines can be revived and cultured indefinitely with resumed synthesis and secretion of monoclonal antibody. The secreted antibody is recovered from tissue culture supernatant by conventional methods such as precipitation, Ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, or the like. The antibodies described herein are also recovered from hybridoma cell cultures by conventional methods for purification of IgG or IgM as the case may be that heretofore have been used to purify these immunoglobulins from pooled plasma, e.g. ethanol or polyethylene glycol precipitation procedures. The purified antibodies are sterile filtered, and optionally are conjugated to a detectable marker such as an enzyme or spin label for use in diagnostic assays of the antigen in test samples.
While routinely rodent monoclonal antibodies are used as the source of the import antibody, the invention is not limited to any species. Additionally, techniques developed for the production of chimeric antibodies (Morrison et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 81:6851 (1984); Neuberger et al., Nature 312:604 (1984); Takeda et al., Nature 314:452 (1985)) by splicing the genes from a mouse antibody molecule of appropriate antigen specificity together with genes from a human antibody molecule of appropriate biological activity (such as ability to activate human complement and mediate ADCC) can be used; such antibodies are within the scope of this invention.
Techniques for creating recombinant DNA versions of the antigen-binding regions of antibody molecules (known as Fab fragments) which bypass the generation of monoclonal antibodies are encompassed within the practice of this invention. One extracts antibody-specific messenger RNA molecules from immune system cells taken from an immunized animal, transcribes these into complementary DNA (cDNA), and clones the cDNA into a bacterial expressions system. One example of such a technique suitable for the practice of this invention was developed by researchers at Scripps/Stratagene, and incorporates a proprietary bacteriophage lambda vector system which contains a leader sequence that causes the expressed Fab protein to migrate to the periplasmic space (between the bacterial cell membrane and the cell wall) or to be secreted. One can rapidly generate and screen great numbers of functional FAb fragments for those which bind the antigen. Such FAb fragments with specificity for the antigen are specifically encompassed within the term "antibody" as it is defined, discussed, and claimed herein.
Amino Acid Sequence Variants
Amino acid sequence variants of the antibodies and polypeptides of this invention (referred to in herein as the target polypeptide) are prepared by introducing appropriate nucleotide changes into the DNA encoding the target polypeptide, or by in vitro synthesis of the desired target polypeptide. Such variants include, for example, humanized variants of non-human antibodies, as well as deletions from, or insertions or substitutions of, residues within particular amino acid sequences. Any combination of deletion, insertion, and substitution can be made to arrive at the final construct, provided that the final construct possesses the desired characteristics. The amino acid changes also may alter post-translational processes of the target polypeptide, such as changing the number or position of glycosylation sites, altering any membrane anchoring characteristics, and/or altering the intra-cellular location of the target polypeptide by inserting, deleting, or otherwise affecting any leader sequence of the native target polypeptide.
In designing amino acid sequence variants of target polypeptides, the location of the mutation site and the nature of the mutation will depend on the target polypeptide characteristic(s) to be modified. The sites for mutation can be modified individually or in series, e.g., by (1) substituting first with conservative amino acid choices and then with more radical selections depending upon the results achieved, (2) deleting the target residue, or (3) inserting residues of the same or a different class adjacent to the located site, or combinations of options 1-3. In certain embodiments, these choices are guided by the methods for creating humanized sequences set forth above.
A useful method for identification of certain residues or regions of the target polypeptide that are preferred locations for mutagenesis is called "alanine scanning mutagenesis" as described by Cunningham and Wells (Science, 244: 1081-1085 ). Here, a residue or group of target residues are identified (e.g., charged residues such as arg, asp, his, lys, and glu) and replaced by a neutral or negatively charged amino acid (most preferably alanine or polyalanine) to affect the interaction of the amino acids with the surrounding aqueous environment in or outside the cell. Those domains demonstrating functional sensitivity to the substitutions then are refined by introducing further or object variants at or for the sites of substitution. Thus, while the site for introducing an amino acid sequence variation is predetermined, the nature of the mutation per se need not be predetermined. For example, to optimize the performance of a mutation at a given site, ala scanning or random mutagenesis may be conducted at the target codon or region and the expressed target polypeptide variants are screened for the optimal combination of desired activity.
There are two principal variables in the construction of amino acid sequence variants: the location of the mutation site and the nature of the mutation. In general, the location and nature of the mutation chosen will depend upon the target polypeptide characteristic to be modified.
Amino acid sequence deletions of antibodies are generally not preferred, as maintaining the generally configuration of an antibody is believed to be necessary for its activity. An deletions will be selected so as to preserve the structure of the target antibody.
Amino acid sequence insertions include amino- and/or carboxyl-terminal fusions ranging in length from one residue to polypeptides containing a hundred or more residues, as well as intrasequence insertions of single or multiple amino acid residues. Intrasequence insertions (i.e., insertions within the target polypeptide sequence) may range generally from about 1 to 10 residues, more preferably 1 to 5, most preferably 1 to 3. Examples of terminal insertions include the target polypeptide with an N-terminal methionyl residue, an artifact of the direct expression of target polypeptide in bacterial recombinant cell culture, and fusion of a heterologous N-terminal signal sequence to the N-terminus of the target polypeptide molecule to facilitate the secretion of the mature target polypeptide from recombinant host cells. Such signal sequences generally will be obtained from, and thus homologous to, the intended host cell species. Suitable sequences include STII or Ipp for E. coli, alpha factor for yeast, and viral signals such as herpes gD for mammalian cells.
Other insertional variants of the target polypeptide include the fusion to the N- or C-terminus of the target polypeptide of immunogenic polypeptides, e.g., bacterial polypeptides such as beta-lactamase or an enzyme encoded by the E. coli trp locus, or yeast protein, and C-terminal fusions with proteins having a long half-life such as immunoglobulin constant regions (or other immunoglobulin regions), albumin, or ferritin, as described in WO 89/02922 published Apr. 6, 1989.
Another group of variants are amino acid substitution variants. These variants have at least one amino acid residue in the target polypeptide molecule removed and a different residue inserted in its place. The sites of greatest interest for substitutional mutagenesis include sites identified as the active site(s) of the target polypeptide, and sites where the amino acids found in the target polypeptide from various species are substantially different in terms of side-chain bulk, charge, and/or hydrophobicity. Other sites for substitution are described infra, considering the effect of the substitution of the antigen binding, affinity and other characteristics of a particular target antibody.
Other sites of interest are those in which particular residues of the target polypeptides obtained from various species are identical. These positions may be important for the biological activity of the target polypeptide. These sites, especially those falling within a sequence of at least three other identically conserved sites, are substituted in a relatively conservative manner. If such substitutions result in a change in biological activity, then other changes are introduced and the products screened until the desired effect is obtained.
Substantial modifications in function or immunological identity of the target polypeptide are accomplished by selecting substitutions that differ significantly in their effect on maintaining (a) the structure of the polypeptide backbone in the area of the substitution, for example, as a sheet of helical conformation, (b) the charge or hydrophobicity of the molecule at the target site, or (c) the bulk of the side chain. Naturally occurring residues are divided into groups based on common side chain properties:
(1) hydrophobic: norleucine, met, ala, val, leu, ile;
(2) neutral hydrophilic: cys, ser, thr;
(3) acidic: asp, glu;
(4) basic: asn, gln, his, lys, arg;
(5) residues that influence chain orientation: gly, pro; and
(6) aromatic: trp, tyr, phe.
Non-conservative substitutions will entail exchanging a member of one of these classes for another. Such substituted residues may be introduced into regions of the target polypeptide that are homologous with other antibodies of the same class or subclass, or, more preferably, into the non-homologous regions of the molecule.
Any cysteine residues not involved in maintaining the proper conformation of target polypeptide also may be substituted, generally with serine, to improve the oxidative stability of the molecule and prevent aberrant crosslinking.
DNA encoding amino acid sequence variants of the target polypeptide is prepared by a variety of methods known in the art. These methods include, but are not limited to, isolation from a natural source (in the case of naturally occurring amino acid amino acid sequence variants) or preparation by oligonucleotide-mediated (or site-directed) mutagenesis, PCR mutagenesis, and cassette mutagenesis of an earlier prepared variant or a non-variant version of the target polypeptide. A particularly preferred method of gene conversion mutagenesis is described below in Example 1. These techniques may utilized target polypeptide nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), or nucleic acid complementary to the target polypeptide nucleic acid.
Oligonucleotide-mediated mutagenesis is a preferred method for preparing substitution, deletion, and insertion variants of target polypeptide DNA. This technique is well known in the art as described by Adelman et al., DNA, 2: 183 (1983). Briefly, the target polypeptide DNA is altered by hybridizing an oligonucleotide encoding the desired mutation to a DNA template, where the template is the single-stranded form of a plasmid or bacteriophage containing the unaltered or native DNA sequence of the target polypeptide. After hybridization, a DNA polymerase is used to synthesize an entire second complementary strand of the template that will thus incorporate the oligonucleotide primer, and will code for the selected alteration in the target polypeptide DNA.
Generally, oligonucleotides of at least 25 nucleotides in length are used. An optimal oligonucleotide will have 12 to 15 nucleotides that are completely complementary to the template on either side of the nucleotide(s) coding for the mutation. This ensures that the oligonucleotide will hybridize properly to the single-stranded DNA template molecule. The oligonucleotides are readily synthesized using techniques known in the art such as that described by Crea et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 75: 5765 ).
Single-stranded DNA template may also be generated by denaturing double-stranded plasmid (or other) DNA using standard techniques.
For alteration of the native DNA sequence (to generate amino acid sequence variants, for example), the oligonucleotide is hybridized to the single-stranded template under suitable hybridization conditions. A DNA polymerizing enzyme, usually the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, is then added to synthesize the complementary strand of the template using the oligonucleotide as a primer for synthesis. A heteroduplex molecule is thus formed such that one strand of DNA encodes the mutated form of the target polypeptide, and the other strand (the original template) encodes the native, unaltered sequence of the target polypeptide. This heteroduplex molecule is then transformed into a suitable host cell, usually a prokaryote such as E. coli JM101. After the cells are grown, they are plated onto agarose plates and screened using the oligonucleotide primer radiolabeled with 32-phosphate to identify the bacterial colonies that contain the mutated DNA. The mutated region is then removed and placed in an appropriate vector for protein production, generally an expression vector of the type typically employed for transformation of an appropriate host.
The method described immediately above may be modified such that a homoduplex molecule is created wherein both strands of the plasmid contain the mutation(s). The modifications are as follows: The single-stranded oligonucleotide is annealed to the single-stranded template as described above. A mixture of three deoxyribonucleotides, deoxyriboadenosine (dATP), deoxyriboguanosine (dGTP), and deoxyribothymidine (dTTP), is combined with a modified thio-deoxyribocytosine called dCTP-(aS) (which can be obtained from Amersham Corporation). This mixture is added to the template-oligonucleotide complex. Upon addition of DNA polymerase to this mixture, a strand of DNA identical to the template except for the mutated bases is generated. In addition, this new strand of DNA will contain dCTP-(aS) instead of dCTP, which serves to protect it from restriction endonuclease digestion.
After the template strand of the double-stranded heteroduplex is nicked with an appropriate restriction enzyme, the template strand can be digested with ExoIII nuclease or another appropriate nuclease past the region that contains the site(s) to be mutagenized. The reaction is then stopped to leave a molecule that is only partially single-stranded. A complete double-stranded DNA homoduplex is then formed using DNA polymerase in the presence of all four deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates, ATP, and DNA ligase. This homoduplex molecule can then be transformed into a suitable host cell such as E. coli JM101, as described above.
DNA encoding target polypeptide variants with more than one amino acid to be substituted may be generated in one of several ways. If the amino acids are located close together in the polypeptide chain, they may be mutated simultaneously using one oligonucleotide that codes for all of the desired amino acid substitutions. If, however, the amino acids are located some distance from each other (separated by more than about ten amino acids), it is more difficult to generate a single oligonucleotide that encodes all of the desired changes. Instead, one of two alternative methods may be employed.
In the first method, a separate oligonucleotide is generated for each amino acid to be substituted. The oligonucleotides are then annealed to the single-stranded template DNA simultaneously, and the second strand of DNA that is synthesized from the template will encode all of the desired amino acid substitutions.
The alternative method involves two or more rounds of mutagenesis to produce the desired mutant. The first round is as described for the single mutants: wild-type DNA is used for the template, an oligonucleotide encoding the first desired amino acid substitution(s) is annealed to this template, and the heteroduplex DNA molecule is then generated. The second round of mutagenesis utilizes the mutated DNA produced in the first round of mutagenesis as the template. Thus, this template already contains one or more mutations. The oligonucleotide encoding the additional desired amino acid substitution(s) is then annealed to this template, and the resulting strand of DNA now encodes mutations from both the first and second rounds of mutagenesis. This resultant DNA can be used as a template in a third round of mutagenesis, and so on.
PCR mutagenesis is also suitable for making amino acid variants of target polypeptide. While the following discussion refers to DNA, it is understood that the technique also finds application with RNA. The PCR technique generally refers to the following procedure (see Erlich, supra, the chapter by R. Higuchi, p. 61-70): When small amounts of template DNA are used as starting material in a PCR, primers that differ slightly in sequence from the corresponding region in a template DNA can be used to generate relatively large quantities of a specific DNA fragment that differs from the template sequence only at the positions where the primers differ from the template. For introduction of a mutation into a plasmid DNA, one of the primers is designed to overlap the position of the mutation and to contain the mutation; the sequence of the other primer must be identical to a stretch of sequence of the opposite strand of the plasmid, but this sequence can be located anywhere along the plasmid DNA. It is preferred, however, that the sequence of the second primer is located within 200 nucleotides from that of the first, such that in the end the entire amplified region of DNA bounded by the primers can be easily sequenced. PCR amplification using a primer pair like the one just described results in a population of DNA fragments that differ at the position of the mutation specified by the primer, and possibly at other positions, as template copying is somewhat error-prone.
If the ratio of template to product material is extremely low, the vast majority of product DNA fragments incorporate the desired mutation(s). This product material is used to replace the corresponding region in the plasmid that served as PCR template using standard DNA technology. Mutations at separate positions can be introduced simultaneously by either using a mutant second primer, or performing a second PCR with different mutant primers and ligating the two resulting PCR fragments simultaneously to the vector fragment in a three (or more)-part ligation.
In a specific example of PCR mutagenesis, template plasmid DNA (1 .mu.g) is linearized by digestion with a restriction endonuclease that has a unique recognition site in the plasmid DNA outside of the region to be amplified. Of this material, 100 ng is added to a PCR mixture containing PCR buffer, which contains the four deoxynucleotide tri-phosphates and is included in the GeneAmp.RTM. kits (obtained from Perkin-Elmer Cetus, Norwalk, Conn. and Emeryville, Calif.), and 25 pmole of each oligonucleotide primer, to a final volume of 50 .mu.l. The reaction mixture is overlayed with 35 .mu.l mineral oil. The reaction is denatured for 5 minutes at 100oC., placed briefly on ice, and then 1 .mu.l Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase (5 units/.mu.l, purchased from Perkin-Elmer Cetus, Norwalk, Conn. and Emeryville, Calif.) is added below the mineral oil layer. The reaction mixture is then inserted into a DNA Thermal Cycler (purchased from Perkin-Elmer Cetus) programmed as follows: 2 min. at 55oC., then 30 sec. at 72oC., then 19 cycles of the following: 30 sec. at 94oC., 30 sec. at 55oC., and 30 sec. at 72oC.
At the end of the program, the reaction vial is removed from the thermal cycler and the aqueous phase transferred to a new vial, extracted with phenol/chloroform (50:50:vol), and ethanol precipitated, and the DNA is recovered by standard procedures. This material is subsequently subjected to the appropriate treatments for insertion into a vector.
Another method for preparing variants, cassette mutagenesis, is based on the technique described by Wells et al. (Gene, 34: 315 ). The starting material is the plasmid (or other vector) comprising the target polypeptide DNA to be mutated. The codon(s) in the target polypeptide DNA to be mutated are identified. There must be a unique restriction endonuclease site on each side of the identified mutation site(s). If no such restriction sites exist, they may be generated using the above-described oligonucleotide-mediated mutagenesis method to introduce them at appropriate locations in the target polypeptide DNA. After the restriction sites have been introduced into the plasmid, the plasmid is cut at these sites to linearize it. A double-stranded oligonucleotide encoding the sequence of the DNA between the restriction sites but containing the desired mutation(s) is synthesized using standard procedures. The two strands are synthesized separately and then hybridized together using standard techniques. This double-stranded oligonucleotide is referred to as the cassette. This cassette is designed to have 3' and 5' ends that are compatible with the ends of the linearized plasmid, such that it can be directly ligated to the plasmid. This plasmid now contains the mutated target polypeptide DNA sequence.
Insertion of DNA into a Cloning Vehicle
The cDNA or genomic DNA encoding the target polypeptide is inserted into a replicable vector for further cloning (amplification of the DNA) or for expression. Many vectors are available, and selection of the appropriate vector will depend on 1) whether it is to be used for DNA amplification or for DNA expression, 2) the size of the DNA to be inserted into the vector, and 3) the host cell to be transformed with the vector. Each vector contains various components depending on its function (amplification of DNA or expression of DNA) and the host cell for which it is compatible. The vector components generally include, but are not limited to, one or more of the following: a signal sequence, an origin of replication, one or more marker genes, an enhancer element, a promoter, and a transcription termination sequence.
(a) Signal Sequence Component
In general, the signal sequence may be a component of the vector, or it may be a part of the target polypeptide DNA that is inserted into the vector.
The target polypeptides of this invention may be expressed not only directly, but also as a fusion with a heterologous polypeptide, preferably a signal sequence or other polypeptide having a specific cleavage site at the N-terminus of the mature protein or polypeptide. In general, the signal sequence may be a component of the vector, or it may be a part of the target polypeptide DNA that is inserted into the vector. Included within the scope of this invention are target polypeptides with any native signal sequence deleted and replaced with a heterologous signal sequence. The heterologous signal sequence selected should be one that is recognized and processed (i.e. cleaved by a signal peptidase) by the host cell. For prokaryotic host cells that do not recognize and process the native target polypeptide signal sequence, the signal sequence is substituted by a prokaryotic signal sequence selected, for example, from the group of the alkaline phosphatase, penicillinase, Ipp, or heat-stable enterotoxin II leaders. For yeast secretion the native target polypeptide signal sequence may be substituted by the yeast invertase, alpha factor, or acid phosphatase leaders. In mammalian cell expression the native signal sequence is satisfactory, although other mammalian signal sequences may be suitable.
(b) Origin of Replication Component
Both expression and cloning vectors contain a nucleic acid sequence that enables the vector to replicate in one or more selected host cells. Generally, in cloning vectors this sequence is one that enables the vector to replicate independently of the host chromosomal DNA, and includes origins of replication or autonomously replicating sequences. Such sequences are well known for a variety of bacteria, yeast, and viruses. The origin of replication from the plasmid pBR322 is suitable for most Gram-negative bacteria, the 2.mu. plasmid origin is suitable for yeast, and various viral origins (SV40, polyoma, adenovirus, VSV or BPV) are useful for cloning vectors in mammalian cells. Generally, the origin of replication component is not needed for mammalian expression vectors (the SV40 origin may typically be used only because it contains the early promoter).
Most expression vectors are "shuttle" vectors, i.e. they are capable of replication in at least one class of organisms but can be transfected into another organism for expression. For example, a vector is cloned in E. coli and then the same vector is transfected into yeast or mammalian cells for expression even though it is not capable of replicating independently of the host cell chromosome.
DNA may also be amplified by insertion into the host genome. This is readily accomplished using Bacillus species as hosts, for example, by including in the vector a DNA sequence that is complementary to a sequence found in Bacillus genomic DNA. Transfection of Bacillus with this vector results in homologous recombination with the genome and insertion of the target polypeptide DNA. However, the recovery of genomic DNA encoding the target polypeptide is more complex than that of an exogenously replicated vector because restriction enzyme digestion is required to excise the target polypeptide DNA.
(c) Selection Gene Component
Expression and cloning vectors should contain a selection gene, also termed a selectable marker. This gene encodes a protein necessary for the survival or growth of transformed host cells grown in a selective culture medium. Host cells not transformed with the vector containing the selection gene will not survive in the culture medium. Typical selection genes encode proteins that (a) confer resistance to antibiotics or other toxins, e.g. ampicillin, neomycin, methotrexate, or tetracycline, (b) complement auxotrophic deficiencies, or (c) supply critical nutrients not available from complex media, e.g. the gene encoding D-alanine racemase for Bacilli.
One example of a selection scheme utilizes a drug to arrest growth of a host cell. Those cells that are successfully transformed with a heterologous gene express a protein conferring drug resistance and thus survive the selection regimen. Examples of such dominant selection use the drugs neomycin (Southern et al., J. Molec. Appl. Genet., 1: 327 ), mycophenolic acid (Mulligan et al., Science, 209: 1422 ) or hygromycin (Sugden et al., Mol. Cell. Biol., 5: 410--413 ). The three examples given above employ bacterial genes under eukaryotic control to convey resistance to the appropriate drug G418 or neomycin (geneticin), xgpt (mycophenolic acid), or hygromycin, respectively.
Another example of suitable selectable markers for mammalian cells are those that enable the identification of cells competent to take up the target polypeptide nucleic acid, such as dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) or thymidine kinase. The mammalian cell transformants are placed under selection pressure which only the transformants are uniquely adapted to survive by virtue of having taken up the marker. Selection pressure is imposed by culturing the transformants under conditions in which the concentration of selection agent in the medium is successively changed, thereby leading to amplification of both the selection gene and the DNA that encodes the target polypeptide. Amplification is the process by which genes in greater demand for the production of a protein critical for growth are reiterated in tandem within the chromosomes of successive generations of recombinant cells. Increased quantities of the target polypeptide are synthesized from the amplified DNA.
For example, cells transformed with the DHFR selection gene are first identified by culturing all of the transformants in a culture medium that contains methotrexate (Mtx), a competitive antagonist of DHFR. An appropriate host cell when wild-type DHFR is employed is the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line deficient in DHFR activity, prepared and propagated as described by Urlaub and Chasin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77: 4216 . The transformed cells are then exposed to increased levels of methotrexate. This leads to the synthesis of multiple copies of the DHFR gene, and, concomitantly, multiple copies of other DNA comprising the expression vectors, such as the DNA encoding the target polypeptide. This amplification technique can be used with any otherwise suitable host, e.g., ATCC No. CCL61 CHO-K1, notwithstanding the presence of endogenous DHFR if, for example, a mutant DHFR gene that is highly resistant to Mtx is employed (EP 117,060). Alternatively, host cells (particularly wild-type hosts that contain endogenous DHFR) transformed or co-transformed with DNA sequences encoding the target polypeptide, wild-type DHFR protein, and another selectable marker such as aminoglycoside 3' phosphotransferase (APH) can be selected by cell growth in medium containing a selection agent for the selectable marker such as an aminoglycosidic antibiotic, e.g., kanamycin, neomycin, or G418. See U.S. Pat. No. 4,965,199.
A suitable selection gene for use in yeast is the trp1 gene present in the yeast plasmid YRp7 (Stinchcomb et al., Nature, 282: 39 ; Kingsman et al., Gene, 7: 141 ; or Tschemper et al., Gene, 10: 157 ). The trp1 gene provides a selection marker for a mutant strain of yeast lacking the ability to grow in tryptophan, for example, ATCC No. 44076 or PEP4-1 (Jones, Genetics, 85: 12 ). The presence of the trp1 lesion in the yeast host cell genome then provides an effective environment for detecting transformation by growth in the absence of tryptophan. Similarly, Leu2-deficient yeast strains (ATCC 20,622 or 38,626) are complemented by known plasmids bearing the Leu2 gene.
(d) Promoter Component
Expression and cloning vectors usually contain a promoter that is recognized by the host organism and is operably linked to the target polypeptide nucleic acid. Promoters are untranslated sequences located upstream (5') to the start codon of a structural gene (generally within about 100 to 1000 bp) that control the transcription and translation of a particular nucleic acid sequence, such as that encoding the target polypeptide, to which they are operably linked. Such promoters typically fall into two classes, inducible and constitutive. Inducible promoters are promoters that initiate increased levels of transcription from DNA under their control in response to some change in culture conditions, e.g. the presence or absence of a nutrient or a change in temperature. At this time a large number of promoters recognized by a variety of potential host cells are well known. These promoters are operably linked to DNA encoding the target polypeptide by removing the promoter from the source DNA by restriction enzyme digestion and inserting the isolated promoter sequence into the vector. Both the native target polypeptide promoter sequence and many heterologous promoters may be used to direct amplification and/or expression of the target polypeptide DNA. However, heterologous promoters are preferred, as they generally permit greater transcription and higher yields of expressed target polypeptide as compared to the native target polypeptide promoter.
Promoters suitable for use with prokaryotic hosts include the .beta.-lactamase and lactose promoter systems (Chang et al., Nature, 275: 615 ; and Goeddel et al., Nature, 281: 544 ), alkaline phosphatase, a tryptophan (trp) promoter system (Goeddel et al., Nucleic Acids Res., 8: 4057  and EP 36,776) and hybrid promoters such as the tac promoter (deBoer et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80: 21-25 ). However, other known bacterial promoters are suitable. Their nucleotide sequences have been published, thereby enabling a skilled worker operably to ligate them to DNA encoding the target polypeptide (Siebenlist et al., Cell, 20: 269 ) using linkers or adaptors to supply any required restriction sites. Promoters for use in bacterial systems also generally will contain a Shine-Dalgarno (S.D.) sequence operably linked to the DNA encoding the target polypeptide.
Suitable promoting sequences for use with yeast hosts include the promoters for 3-phoshoglycerate kinase (Hitzeman et al., J. Biol. Chem., 255: 2073 ) or other glycolytic enzymes (Hess et al., J. Adv. Enzyme Reg., 7: 149 ; and Holland, Biochemistry, 17:4900 ), such as enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase, pyruvate decarboxylase, phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 3-phosphoglycerate mutase, pyruvate kinase, triosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglucose isomerase, and glucokinase.
Other yeast promoters, which are inducible promoters having the additional advantage of transcription controlled by growth conditions, are the promoter regions for alcohol dehydrogenase 2, isocytochrome C, acid phosphatase, degradative enzymes associated with nitrogen metabolism, metallothionein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and enzymes responsible for maltose and galactose utilization. Suitable vectors and promoters for use in yeast expression are further described in Hitzeman et al., EP 73,657A. Yeast enhancers also are advantageously used with yeast promoters.
Promoter sequences are known for eukaryotes. Virtually all eukaryotic genes have an AT-rich region located approximately 25 to 30 bases upstream from the site where transcription is initiated. Another sequence found 70 to 80 bases upstream from the start of transcription of many genes is a CXCAAT region where X may be any nucleotide. At the 3' end of most eukaryotic genes is an AATAAA sequence that may be the signal for addition of the poly A tail to the 3' end of the coding sequence. All of these sequences are suitably inserted into mammalian expression vectors.
Target polypeptide transcription from vectors in mammalian host cells is controlled by promoters obtained from the genomes of viruses such as polyoma virus, fowlpox virus (UK 2,211,504 published Jul. 5, 1989), adenovirus (such as Adenovirus 2), bovine papilloma virus, avian sarcoma virus, cytomegalovirus, a retrovirus, hepatitis-B virus and most preferably Simian Virus 40 (SV40), from heterologous mammalian promoters, e.g. the actin promoter or an immunoglobulin promoter, from heat-shock promoters, and from the promoter normally associated with the target polypeptide sequence, provided such promoters are compatible with the host cell systems.
The early and late promoters of the SV40 virus are conveniently obtained as an SV40 restriction fragment that also contains the SV40 viral origin of replication. Fiers et al., Nature, 273:113 (1978); Mulligan and Berg, Science, 209: 1422-1427 (1980); Pavlakis et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78: 7398-7402 (1981). The immediate early promoter of the human cytomegalovirus is conveniently obtained as a HindIII E restriction fragment. Greenaway et al., Gene, 18: 355-360 (1982). A system for expressing DNA in mammalian hosts using the bovine papilloma virus as a vector is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,419,446. A modification of this system is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,601,978. See also Gray et al., Nature, 295: 503-508 (1982) on expressing cDNA encoding immune interferon in monkey cells; Reyes et al., Nature, 297: 598-601 (1982) on expression of human .beta.-interferon cDNA in mouse cells under the control of a thymidine kinase promoter from herpes simplex virus, Canaani and Berg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79: 5166-5170 (1982) on expression of the human interferon .beta.1 gene in cultured mouse and rabbit cells, and Gorman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79: 6777-6781 (1982) on expression of bacterial CAT sequences in CV-1 monkey kidney cells, chicken embryo fibroblasts, Chinese hamster ovary cells, HeLa cells, and mouse NIH-3T3 cells using the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat as a promoter.
(e) Enhancer Element Component
Transcription of DNA encoding the target polypeptide of this invention by higher eukaryotes is often increased by inserting an enhancer sequence into the vector. Enhancers are cis-acting elements of DNA, usually about from 10-300 bp, that act on a promoter to increase its transcription. Enhancers are relatively orientation and position independent having been found 5' (Laimins et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78: 993 ) and 3' (Lusky et al., Mol. Cell Bio., 3: 1108 ) to the transcription unit, within an intron (Banerji et al., Cell, 33: 729 ) as well as within the coding sequence itself (Osborne et al., Mol. Cell Bio., 4: 1293 ). Many enhancer sequences are now known from mammalian genes (globin, elastase, albumin, .alpha.-fetoprotein and insulin). Typically, however, one will use an enhancer from a eukaryotic cell virus. Examples include the SV40 enhancer on the late side of the replication origin (bp 100-270), the cytomegalovirus early promoter enhancer, the polyoma enhancer on the late side of the replication origin, and adenovirus enhancers. See also Yaniv, Nature, 297: 17-18 (1982) on enhancing elements for activation of eukaryotic promoters. The enhancer may be spliced into the vector at a position 5' or 3' to the target polypeptide DNA, but is preferably located at a site 5' from the promoter.
(f) Transcription Termination Component
Expression vectors used in eukaryotic host cells (yeast, fungi, insect, plant, animal, human, or nucleated cells from other multicellular organisms) will also contain sequences necessary for the termination of transcription and for stabilizing the mRNA. Such sequences are commonly available from the 5' and, occasionally 3' untranslated regions of eukaryotic or viral DNA or cDNAs. These regions contain nucleotide segments transcribed as polyadenylated fragments in the untranslated portion of the mRNA encoding the target polypeptide. The 3' untranslated regions also include transcription termination sites.
Construction of suitable vectors containing one or more of the above listed components the desired coding and control sequences employs standard ligation techniques. Isolated plasmids or DNA fragments are cleaved, tailored, and religated in the form desired to generate the plasmids required.
For analysis to confirm correct sequences in plasmids constructed, the ligation mixtures are used to transform E. coli K12 strain 294 (ATCC 31,446) and successful transformants selected by ampicillin or tetracycline resistance where appropriate. Plasmids from the transformants are prepared, analyzed by restriction endonuclease digestion, and/or sequenced by the method of Messing et al., Nucleic Acids Res., 9: 309 (1981) or by the method of Maxam et al., Methods in Enzymology, 65: 499 (1980).
Particularly useful in the practice of this invention are expression vectors that provide for the transient expression in mammalian cells of DNA encoding the target polypeptide. In general, transient expression involves the use of an expression vector that is able to replicate efficiently in a host cell, such that the host cell accumulates many copies of the expression vector and, in turn, synthesizes high levels of a desired polypeptide encoded by the expression vector. Transient expression systems, comprising a suitable expression vector and a host cell, allow for the convenient positive identification of polypeptides encoded by cloned DNAs, as well as for the rapid screening of such polypeptides for desired biological or physiological properties. Thus, transient expression systems are particularly useful in the invention for purposes of identifying analogs and variants of the target polypeptide that have target polypeptide-like activity.
Other methods, vectors, and host cells suitable for adaptation to the synthesis of the target polypeptide in recombinant vertebrate cell culture are described in Gething et al., Nature, 293: 620-625 ; Mantei et al., Nature, 281: 40-46 ; Levinson et al.; EP 117,060; and EP 117,058. A particularly useful plasmid for mammalian cell culture expression of the target polypeptide is pRK5 (EP pub. no. 307,247) or pSVI6B.
Selection and Transformation of Host Cells
Suitable host cells for cloning or expressing the vectors herein are the prokaryote, yeast, or higher eukaryote cells described above. Suitable prokaryotes include eubacteria, such as Gram-negative or Gram-positive organisms, for example, E. coli, Bacilli such as B. subtilis, Pseudomonas species such as P. aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, or Serratia marcescans. One preferred E. coli cloning host is E. coli 294 (ATCC 31,446), although other strains such as E. coli B, E. coli X 1776 (ATCC 31,537), and E. coli W3110 (ATCC 27,325) are suitable. These examples are illustrative rather than limiting. Preferably the host cell should secrete minimal amounts of proteolytic enzymes. Alternatively, in vitro methods of cloning, e.g. PCR or other nucleic acid polymerase reactions, are suitable.
In addition to prokaryotes, eukaryotic microbes such as filamentous fungi or yeast are suitable hosts for target polypeptide-encoding vectors. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or common baker's yeast, is the most commonly used among lower eukaryotic host microorganisms. However, a number of other genes, species, and strains are commonly available and useful herein, such as Schizosaccharomyces pombe [Beach and Nurse, Nature, 290: 140 (1981); EP 139,383 published May 2, 1985], Kluyveromyces hosts (U.S. Pat. No. 4,943,529) such as, e.g., K. lactis [Louvencourt et al., J. Bacteriol., 737 (1983)], K. fragilis, K. bulgaricus, K. thermotolerans, and K. marxianus, yarowia [EP 402,226], Pichia pastoris [EP 183,070; Sreekrishna et al., J. Basic Microbiol., 28: 265-268 (1988)], Candida, Trichoderma reesia [EP 244,234], Neurospora crassa [Case et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 5259-5263 (1979)], and filamentous fungi such as, e.g. Neurospora, Penicillium, Tolypocladium [WO 91/00357 published Jan. 10, 1991], and Aspergillus hosts such as A. nidulans [Ballance et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 112:284-289 (1983), Tilburn et al., Gene, 26: 205-221 (1983); Yelton et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 1470-1474 (1984)] and A. niger [Kelly and Hynes, EMBO J., 4: 475-479 (1985)].
Suitable host cells for the expression of glycosylated target polypeptide are derived from multicellular organisms. Such host cells are capable of complex processing and glycosylation activities. In principle, any higher eukaryotic cell culture is workable, whether from vertebrate or invertebrate culture. Examples of invertebrate cells include plant and insect cells. Numerous baculoviral strains and variants and corresponding permissive insect host cells from hosts such as Spodoptera frugiperda (caterpillar), Aedes aegypti (mosquito), Aedes albopictus (mosquito), Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly), and Brombyx mori host cells have been identified. See, e.g., Luckow et al., Bio/Technology, 6:47-55 (1988); Miller et al., Genetic Engineering, Setlow, J. K. et al., eds., Vol. 8 (Plenum Publishing, 1986), pp. 277-279; and Maeda et al., Nature, 315: 592-594 (1985). A variety of such viral strains are publicly available, e.g., the L-1 variant of Autographa californica NPV and the Bm-5 strain of Bombyx mori NPV, and such viruses may be used as the virus herein according to the present invention, particularly for transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Plant cell cultures of cotton, corn, potato, soybean, petunia, tomato, and tobacco can be utilized as hosts. Typically, plant cells are transfected by incubation with certain strains of the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which has been previously manipulated to contain the target polypeptide DNA. During incubation of the plant cell culture with A. tumefaciens, the DNA encoding target polypeptides is transfected to the plant cell host such that it is transfected, and will, under appropriate conditions, express the target polypeptide DNA. In addition, regulatory and signal sequences compatible with plant cells are available, such as the nopaline synthase promoter and polyadenylation signal sequences. Depicker et al., J. Mol. Appl. Gen., 1: 561 (1982). In addition, DNA segments isolated from the upstream region of the T-DNA 780 gene are capable of activating or increasing transcription levels of plant-expressible genes in recombinant DNA-containing plant tissue. See EP 321,196 published Jun. 21, 1989.
However, interest has bene greatest in vertebrate cells, and propagation of vertebrate cells in culture (tissue culture) has become a routine procedure in recent years [Tissue Culture, Academic Press, Kruse and Patterson, editors (1973)]. Examples of useful mammalian host cell lines are monkey kidney CV1 line transformed by SV40 (COS-7, ATCC CRL 1651); human embryonic kidney line (293 or 293 cells subcloned for growth in suspension culture, Graham et al., J. Gen Virol., 36: 59 ); baby hamster kidney cells (BHK, ATCC CCL 10); Chinese hamster ovary cells/-DHFR (CHO, Urlaub and Chasin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77: 4216 ); mouse sertoli cells (TM4, Mather, Biol. Reprod., 23: 243-251 ); monkey kidney cells (CV1 ATCC CCL 70): African green monkey kidney cells (VERO-76, ATCC CRL-1587); human cervical carcinoma cells (HELA, ATCC CCL 2); canine kidney cells (MDCK, ATCC CCL 34); buffalo rat liver cells (BRL 3A, ATCC CRL 1442); human lung cells (W138, ATCC CCL 75); human liver cells (Hep G2, HB 8065); mouse mammary tumor (MMT 060562, ATCC CCL51); TRI cells (Mather et al., Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci., 383: 44-68 ); MRC 5 cells FS4 cells; and a human hepatoma cell lines (Hep G2). Preferred host cells are human embryonic kidney 293 and Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Host cells are transfected and preferably transformed with the above-described expression or cloning vectors of this invention and cultured in conventional nutrient media modified as appropriate for inducing promoters, selecting transformants, or amplifying the genes encoding the desired sequences.
Transfection refers to the taking up of an expression vector by a host cell whether or not any coding sequences are in fact expressed. Numerous methods of transfection are known to the ordinarily skilled artisan, for example, CaPO4 and electroporation. Successful transfection is generally recognized when any indication of the operation of this vector occurs within the host cell.
Transformation means introducing DNA into an organism so that the DNA is replicable, either as an extrachromosomal element or by chromosomal integrant. Depending on the host cell used, transformation is done using standard technique appropriate to such cells. The calcium treatment employing calcium chloride, as described in section 1.82 of Sambrook et al., supra, is generally used for prokaryotes or other cells that contain substantial cell-wall barriers. Infection with Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used for transformation of certain plant cells, as described in Shaw et al., Gene, 23: 315 (1983), and WO 89/05859 published Jun. 29, 1989. For mammalian cells without such cell walls, the calcium phosphate precipitation method described in sections 16.30-16.37 of Sambrook et al, supra, is preferred. General aspects of mammalian cell host system transformations have been described by Axel in U.S. Pat. No. 4,399,216 issued Aug. 16, 1983. Transformations into yeast are typically carried out according to the method of Van Solingen et al., J. Bact., 130: 946 (1977) and Hsiao et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA), 76: 3829 (1979). However, other methods for introducing DNA into cells such as by nuclear injection, electroporation, or protoplast fusion may also be used.
Culturing the Host Cells
Prokaryotic cells used to produce the target polypeptide of this invention are cultured in suitable media as described generally in Sambrook et al., supra.
The mammalian host cells used to produce the target polypeptide of this invention may be cultured in a variety of media. Commercially available media such as Ham's F10 (Sigma), Minimal Essential Medium [(MEM], Sigma), RPMI-1640 (Sigma), and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium ([DMEM], Sigma) are suitable for culturing the host cells. In addition, any of the media described in Ham and Wallace, Meth. Enz., 58: 44 (1979), Barnes and Sato, Anal. Biochem., 102: 255 (1980), U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,767,704; 4,657,866; 4,927,762; or 4,560,655; WO 90/03430; WO 87/00195; U.S. Pat. No. Re. 30,985, may be used as culture media for the host cells. Any of these media may be supplemented as necessary with hormones and/or other grown factors (such as insulin, transferrin, or epidermal growth factor), salts (such as sodium chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phospahte), buffers (such as HEPES), nucleosides (such as adenosine and thymidine), antibiotics (such as Gentamycin.TM. drug), trace elements (defined as inorganic compounds usually present at final concentrations in the micromolar range), and glucose or an equivalent energy source. Any other necessary supplements may also be included at appropriate concentrations that would be known to those skilled in the art. The culture conditions, such as temperature, pH, and the like, are those previously used with the host cell selected for expression, and will be apparent to the ordinarily skilled artisan.
The host cells referred to in this disclosure encompass cells in in vitro culture as well as cells that are within a host animal.
It is further envisioned that the target polypeptides of this invention may be produced by homologous recombination, or with recombinant production methods utilizing control elements introduced into cells already containing DNA encoding the target polypeptide currently in use in the field. For example, a powerful promoter/enhancer element, a suppressor, or an exogenous transcription modulatory element is inserted in the genome of the intended host cell in proximity and orientation sufficient to influence the transcription of DNA encoding the desired target polypeptide. The control element does not encode the target polypeptide of this invention, but the DNA is present in the host cell genome. One next screens for cells making the target polypeptide of this invention, or increased or decreased levels of expression, as desired.
Detecting Gene Amplification/Expression
Gene amplification and/or expression may be measured in a sample directly, for example, by conventional Southern blotting, northern blotting or quantitate the transcription of mRNA (Thomas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77: 5201-5205 ), dot blotting (DNA analysis), or in situ hybridization, using an appropriately labeled probe, based on the sequences provided herein. Various labels may be employed, most commonly radioisotopes, particularly 32 P. However, other techniques may also be employed, such as using biotin-modified nucleotides for introduction into a polynucleotide. The biotin then serves as the site for binding to avidin or antibodies, which may be labeled with a wide variety of labels, such as radionuclides, fluorescers, enzymes, or the like. Alternatively, antibodies may be employed that can recognize specific duplexes, including DNA duplexes, RNA duplexes, and DNA-RNA hybrid duplexes or DNA-protein duplexes. The antibodies in turn may be labeled and the assay may be carried out where the duplex is bound to a surface, so that upon the formation of duplex on the surface, the presence of antibody bound to the duplex can be detected.
Gene expression, alternatively, may be measured by immunological methods, such as immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections and assay of cell culture or body fluids, to quantitate directly the expression of gene product. With immunohistochemical staining techniques, a cell sample is prepared, typically by dehydration and fixation, followed by reaction with labeled antibodies specific for the gene product coupled, where the labels are usually visually detectable, such as enzymatic labels, fluorescent labels, luminescent labels, and the like. A particularly sensitive staining technique suitable for use in the present invention is described by Hsu et al., Am. J. Clin. Path., 75: 634-738 (1980).
Antibodies useful for immunohistochemical staining and/or assay of sample fluids may be either monoclonal or polyclonal, and may be prepared in any mammal. Conveniently, the antibodies may be prepared against a native target polypeptide or against a synthetic peptide based on the DNA sequences provided herein as described further in Section 4 below.
Purification of The Target polypeptide
The target polypeptide preferably is recovered from the culture medium as a secreted polypeptide, although it also may be recovered from host cell lysates when directly expressed without a secretory signal.
When the target polypeptide is expressed in a recombinant cell other than one of human origin, the target polypeptide is completely free or proteins or polypeptides of human origin. However, it is necessary to purify the target polypeptide from recombinant cell proteins or polypeptides to obtain precursors that are substantially homogeneous as to the target polypeptide. AS a first step, the culture medium or lysate is centrifuged to remove particulate cell debris. The membrane and soluble protein fractions are then separated. The target polypeptide may then be purified from the soluble protein fraction and from the membrane fraction of the culture lysate, depending on whether the target polypeptide is membrane bound. The following procedures are exemplary of suitable purification procedures: fractionation on immunoaffinity or ion-exchange columns; ethanol precipitation; reverse phase HPLC; chromatography on silica or on a cation exchange resin such as a DEAE; chromatofocusing; SDS-PAGE; ammonium sulfate precipitation; gel filtration using, for example, Sephadex G-75; and protein A Sepharose columns to remove contaminants such as IgG.
Target polypeptide variants in which residues have been deleted, inserted or substituted are recovered in the same fashion, taking account of any substantial changes in properties occasioned by the variations. For example, preparation of a target polypeptide fusion with another protein or polypeptide, e.g. a bacterial or viral antigen, facilitates purification; an immunoaffinity column containing antibody to the antigen (or containing antigen, where the target polypeptide is an antibody) can be used to adsorb the fusion. Immunoaffinity columns such as a rabbit polyclonal anti-target polypeptide column can be employed to absorb the target polypeptide variant by binding it to at least one remaining immune epitope. A protease inhibitor such as phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) also may be useful to inhibit proteolytic degradation during purification, and antibiotics may be included to prevent the growth of adventitious contaminants. One skilled in the art will appreciate that purification methods suitable for native target polypeptides may require modification to account for changes in the character of the target polypeptide or its variant upon expression in recombinant cell culture.
Covalent Modifications of Target Polypeptides
Covalent modifications of target polypeptides are included within the scope of this invention. One type of covalent modification included within the scope of this invention is a target polypeptide fragment. Target polypeptide fragments having up to about 40 amino acid residues may be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis, or by enzymatic or chemical cleavage of the full-length target polypeptide or variant target polypeptide. Other types of covalent modifications of the target polypeptide or fragments thereof are introduced into the molecule by reacting specific amino acid residues of the target polypeptide or fragments thereof with an organic derivatizing agent that is capable of reacting with selected side chains or the N- or C-terminal residues.
Cysteinyl residues most commonly are reacted with .alpha.-haloacetates (and corresponding amines), such as chloroacetic acid or chloroacetamide, to give carboxymethyl or carboxyamidomethyl derivatives. Cysteinyl residues also are derivatized by reaction with bromotrifluoroacetone, .alpha.-bromo-.beta.-(5-imidozoyl)propionic acid, chloroacetyl phosphate, N-alkylmaleimides,3-2-pyridyl disulfide,methyl2-pyridyldisulfide,p-chloromercuribenzoate, 2-chloromercuri-4-nitrophenol, or chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole.
Histidyl residues are derivatized by reaction with diethylpyrocarbonate at pH 18.104.22.168 because this agent is relatively specific for the histidyl side chain. Para-bromophenacyl bromide also is useful; the reaction is preferably performed in 0.1M sodium cacodylate at pH 6.0.
Lysinyl and amino terminal residues are reacted with succinic or other carboxylic acid anhydrides. Derivatization with these agents has the effect of reversing the charge of the lysinyl residues. Other suitable reagents for derivatizing .alpha.-amino-containing residues include imidoesters such as methyl picolinimidate; pyridoxal phosphate; pyridoxal; chlorobrohydride; trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid; O-methylisourea; 2,4-pentanedione; and transaminase-catalyzed reaction with glyoxylate.
Arginyl residues are modified by reaction with one or several conventional reagents, among them phenylglyoxal, 2,3-butanedione, 1,2-cyclohexandione, and ninhydrin. Derivatization of arginine residues requires that the reaction be performed in alkaline conditions because of the high pKa of the guanidin functional group. Furthermore, these reagents may react with the groups of lysine as well as the arginine epsilon-amine group.
The specific modification of tyrosyl residues may be made, with particular interest in introducing spectral labels into tyrosyl residues by reaction with aromatic diazonium compounds or tetranitromethane. Most commonly, N-acetylimidizole and tetranitromethane are used to form O-acetyl tyrosyl species and 3-nitro derivatives, respectively. Tyrosyl residues are iodinated using 125 I or 131 I to prepare labeled proteins for use in radioimmunoassay, the chloramine T method described above being suitable.
Carboxyl side groups (aspartyl or glutamyl) are selectively modified by reaction with carbodiimides (R'--N=C=N--R'), where R and R' are different alkyl groups, such as 1-cyclohexyl-3-(2- morpholinyl-4-ethyl) carbodiimide or 1-ethyl-3-(4-azonia-4,4-dimethylpentyl) carbodiimide. Further, aspartyl and glutamyl residues are converted to asparaginyl and glutaminyl residues by reaction with ammonium ions.
Derivatization with bifunctional agents is useful for crosslinking target polypeptide to a water-insoluble support matrix or surface for use in the method for purifying anti-target polypeptide antibodies, and vice versa. Commonly used crosslinking agents include, e.g., 1,1-bis(diazoacetyl)-2-phenylethane, glutaraldehyde, N-hydroxysuccinimide esters, for example, esters with 4-azidosalicylic acid, homobifunctional imidoesters, including disuccinimidyl esters such as 3,3'-dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate), and bifunctional maleimides such as bis-N-maleimido-1,8-octane. Derivatizing agents such as methyl-3-[(p-azidophenyl)dithio]propioimidate yield photoactivatable intermediates that are capable of forming crosslinks in the presence of light. Alternatively, reactive water-insoluble matrices such as cyanogen bromide-activated carbohydrates and the reactive substrates described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,969,287; 3,691,016; 4,195,128; 4,247,642; 4,229,537; and 4,330,440 are employed for protein immobilization.
Glutaminyl and asparaginyl residues are frequently deamidated to the corresponding glutamyl and aspartyl residues, respectively. Alternatively, these residues are deamidated under mildly acidic conditions. Either form of these residues falls within the scope of this invention.
Other modifications include hydroxylation of proline and lysine, phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of seryl or threonyl residues, methylation of the .alpha.-amino groups of lysine, arginine, and histidine side chains (T. E. Creighton, Proteins: Structure and Molecular Properties, W. H. Freeman & Co., San Franciso, pp. 79-86 ); acetylation of the N-terminal amine, and amidation of any C-terminal carboxyl group.
Another type of covalent modification of the target polypeptide included within the scope of this invention comprises altering the native glycosylation pattern of the polypeptide. By altering is meant deleting one or more carbohydrate moieties found in the native target polypeptide, and/or adding one or more glycosylation sites that are not present in the native target polypeptide.
Glycosylation of polypeptides is typically either N-linked or O-linked. N-linked refers to the attachment of the carbohydrate moiety to the side chain of an asparagine residue. The tri-peptide sequences asparagine-X-serine and asparagine-X-threonine, where X is any amino acid except proline, are the recognition sequences for enzymatic attachment of the carbohydrate moiety to the asparagine side chain. Thus, the presence of either of these tri-peptide sequences in a polypeptide creates a potential glycosylation site. O-linked glycosylation refers to the attachment of one of the sugars N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, or xylose, to a hydroxamino acid, most commonly serine or threonine, although 5-hydroxyproline or 5-hydroxylysine may also be used.
Addition of glycosylation sites to the target polypeptide is conveniently accomplished by altering the amino acid sequence such that it contains one or more of the above-described tri-peptide sequences (for N-linked glycosylation sites). The alteration may also be made by the addition of, or substitution by, one or more serine or threonine residues to the native target polypeptide sequence (for O-linked glycosylation sites). For ease, the target polypeptide amino acid sequence is preferably altered through changes at the DNA level, particularly by mutating the DNA encoding the target polypeptide at preselected bases such that codons are generated that will translate into the desired amino acids. The DNA mutuation(s) may be made using methods described above under the heading pf "Amino Acid Sequence Variants of Target Polypeptide".
Another means of increasing the number or carbohydrate moieties on the target polypeptide is by chemical or enzymatic coupling of glycosides to the polypeptide. These procedures are advantageous in that they do not require production of the polypeptide in a host cell that has glycosylation capabilities for N- and O-linked glycosylation. Depending on the coupling mode used, the sugar(s) may be attached to (a) arginine and histidine, (b) free carboxyl groups, (c) free sulfhydryl groups such as those of cysteine, (d) free hydroxyl groups such as those of serine, threonine, or hydroxyproline, (e) aromatic residues such as those of phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan, or (f) the amide group of glutamine. These methods are described in WO 87/05330 published Sep. 11, 1987, and in Aplin and Wriston (CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem., pp. 259-306 ).
Removal of carbohydrate moieties present on the native target polypeptide may be accomplished chemically or enzymatically. Chemical deglycosylation requires exposure of the polypeptide to the compound trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, or an equivalent compound. This treatment results in the cleavage of most or all sugars except the linking sugar (N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine), while leaving the polypeptide intact. Chemical deglycosylation is described by Hakimuddin et al. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 259:52 ) and by Edge et al. (Anal. Biochem., 118:131 ). Enzymatic cleavage of carbohydrate moieties on polypeptides can be achieved by the use of a variety of endo- and exo-glycosidases as described by Thotakur et al., (Meth. Enzymol., 138:350 ).
Glycosylation at potential glycosylation sites may be prevented by the use of the compound tunicamycin as described by Duskin et al. (J. Biol. Chem., 257:3105 ). Tunicamycin blocks the formation of protein N-glycoside linkages.
Another type of covalent modification of the target polypeptide comprises linking the target polypeptide to various nonproteinacetous polymers, e.g. polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol or polyoxyalkylenes, in the manner set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,640,835; 4,496,689; 4,301,144; 4,670,417; 4,791,192 or 4,179,337.
The target polypeptide also may be entrapped in microcapsules prepared, for example, by coacervation techniques or by interfacial polymerization (for example, hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin-microcapsules and poly-[methylmethacylate]microcapsules, respectively), in colloid drug delivery systems (for example, lipsomes, alubin microspheres, microemulsions, nano-particles and nonocapsules), or in macroemulsions. Such techniques are disclosed in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 16th edition, Osol, A., Ed., (1980).
Target polypeptide preparations are also useful in generating antibodies, for screening for binding partners, as standards in assays for the target polypeptide (e.g., by labeling the target polypeptide for use as a standard in a radioimmunoassay, enzyme-linked immunoassay, or radioreceptor assay), in affinity purification techniques, and in competitive-type receptor binding assays when labeled with radioiodine, enzymes, fluorophores, spin labels, and the like.
Since it is often difficult to predict in advance the characteristics of a variant target polypeptide, it will be appreciated that some screening of the recovered variant will be needed to select the optimal variant. For example, a change in the immunological character of the target polypeptide molecule, such as affinity for a given antigen or antibody, is measured by a competitive-type immunoassay. The variant is assayed for changes in the suppression or enhancement of its activity by comparison to the activity observed for the target polypeptide in the same assay. Other potential modifications of protein or polypeptide properties such as redox or thermal stability, hydrophobicity, susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, stability in recombinant cell culture or in plasma, or the tendency to aggregate with carriers or into multimers are assayed by methods well known in the art.
Diagnostic and Related Uses of the Antibodies
The antibodies of this invention are useful in diagnostic assays for antigen expression in specific cell or tissues. The antibodies are detectably labeled and/or immobilized on an insoluble matrix.
The antibodies of this invention find further use for the affinity purification of the antigen from recombinant cell culture or natural sources. Suitable diagnostic assays for the antigen and its antibodies depend on the particular antigen or antibody. Generally, such assays include competitive and sandwich assays, and steric inhibition assays. Competitive and sandwich methods employ a phase-separation step as an integral part of the method while steric inhibition assays are conducted in a single reaction mixture. Fundamentally, the same procedures are used for the assay of the antigen and for substances that bind the antigen, although certain methods will be favored depending upon the molecular weight of the substance being assayed. Therefore, the substance to be tested is referred to herein as an analyte, irrespective of its status otherwise as an antigen or antibody, and proteins that bind to the analyte are denominated binding patterns, whether they be antibodies, cell surface receptors, or antigens.
Analytical methods for the antigen or its antibodies all use one or more of the following reagents: labeled analyte analogue, immobilized analyte analogue, labeled binding partner, immobilized binding partner and steric conjugates. The labeled reagents also are known as "tracers."
The label used (and this is also useful to label antigen nucleic acid for use as a probe) is any detectable functionality that does not interfere with the binding of analyte and its binding partner. Numerous labels are known for use in immunoassay, examples including moieties that may be detected directly, such as fluorochrome, chemiluminescent, and radioactive labels, as well as moieties, such as enzymes, that must be reacted or derivatized to be detected. Examples of such labels include the radioisotopes 32 P, 14 C, 125 I, 3 H, and 131 I, fluorophores such as rare earth chelates or fluorescein and its derivatives, rhodamine and its derivatives, dansyl, umbelliferone, luceriferases, e.g., firefly luciferase and bacterial luciferase (U.S. Pat. No. 4,737,456), luciferin, 2,3-dihydrophthalazinediones, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), alkaline phosphatase, .beta.-galactosidase, glucoamylase, lysozyme, saccharide oxidases, e.g., glucose oxidase, galactose oxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, heterocyclic oxidases such as uricase and xanthine oxidase, coupled with an enzyme that employs hydrogen peroxide to oxidize a dye precursor such as HRP, lactoperoxidase, or microperoxidase, biotin/avidin, spin labels, bacteriophage labels, stable free radicals, and the like.
Conventional methods are available to bind these labels covalently to proteins or polypeptides. For instance, coupling agents such as dialdehydes, carbodiimides, dimaleimides, bis-imidates, bis-diazotized benzidine, and the like may be used to tag the antibodies with the above-described fluorescent, chemiluminescent, and enzyme labels. See, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,940,475 (fluorimetry) and 3,645,090 (enzymes); Hunter et al., Nature, 144: 945 (1962); David et al., Biochemistry, 13: 1014-1021 (1974); Pain et al., J. Immunol. Methods, 40: 219--230 (1981) and Nygen, J. Histochem. and Cytochem., 30: 407-412 (1982). Preferred labels herein are enzymes such as horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase.
The conjugation of such label, including the enzymes, to the antibody is a standard manipulative procedure for one of ordinary skill in immunoassay techniques. See, for example, O'Sullivan et al., "Method for the Preparation of Enzyme-antibody Conjugates for Use in Enzyme Immunoassay," Methods in Enzymology, ed. J.J. Langone and H. Van Vunakis, Vol. 73 (Academic Press, New York, N.Y., 1981), pp. 147-166. Such bonding methods are suitable for use with the antibodies and polypeptides of this invention.
Immobilization of reagents is required for certain assay methods. Immobilization entails separating the binding partner from any analyte that remains free in solution. This conventionally is accomplished by either insolubilizing the binding partner or analyte analogue before the assay procedure, as by adsorption to a water-insoluble matrix or surface (Bennich et al., U.S. Pat. No. 3,720,760), by covalent coupling (for example, using glutaraldehyde cross-linking), or by insolubilizing the partner or analogue afterward, e.g., by immunoprecipitation.
Other assay methods, known as competitive or sandwich assays, are well established and widely used in the commercial diagnostic industry.
Competitive assays rely on the ability of a tracer analogue to compete with the test sample analyte for a limited number of binding sites on a common binding partner. The binding partner generally is insolublized before or after the competition and then the tracer and analyte bound to the binding partner are separated from the unbound tracer and analyte. This separation is accomplished by decanting (where the binding partner was preinsolubilized) or by centrifuging (where the binding partner was precipitated after the competitive reaction). The amount of test sample analyte is inversely proportional to the amount of bound tracer as measured by the amount of marker substance. Dose-response curves with known amounts of analyte are prepared and compared with the test results to quantitatively determine the amount of analyte present in the test sample. These assays are called ELISA systems when enzymes are used as the detectable markers.
Another species of competitive assay, called a "homogeneous" assay, does not require a phase separation. Here, a conjugate of an enzyme with the analyte is prepared and used such that when anti-analyte binds to the analyte the presence of the anti-analyte modifies the enzyme activity. In this case, the antigen or its immunologically active fragments are conjugated with a bifunctional organic bridge to an enzyme such as peroxidase. Conjugates are selected for use with antibody so that binding of the antibody inhibits or potentiates the enzyme activity of the label. This method per se is widely practiced under the name of EMT.
Steric conjugates are used in steric hindrance methods for homogeneous assay. These conjugates are synthesized by covalently linking a low-molecular-weight hapten to a small analyte so that antibody to hapten substantially is unable to bind the conjugate at the same time as anti-analyte. Under this assay procedure the analyte present in the test sample will bind anti-analyte, thereby allowing anti-hapten to bind the conjugate, resulting in a change in the character of the conjugate hapten, e.g., a change in fluorescence when the hapten is a fluorophore.
Sandwich assays particularly are useful for the determination of antigen or antibodies. In sequential sandwich assays an immobilized binding partner is used to adsorb test sample analyte, the test sample is removed as by washing, the bound analyte is used to adsorb labeled binding partner, and bound material is then separated from residual tracer. The amount of bond tracer is directly proportional to test sample analyte. In "simultaneous" sandwich assays the test sample is not separated before adding the labeled binding partner. A sequential sandwich assay using an anti-antigen- monoclonal antibody as one antibody and a polyclonal anti-antigen antibody as the other is useful in testing samples for particular antigen activity.
The foregoing are merely exemplary diagnostic assays for the import and humanized antibodies of this invention. Other methods now or hereafter developed for the determination of these analytes are included within the scope hereof, including the bioassays described above.
This invention is also directed to immunochemical derivatives of the antibodies of this invention such as immunotoxins (conjugates of the antibody and a cytotoxic moiety). Antibodies which carry the appropriate effector functions, such as with their constant domains, are also used to induce lysis through the natural complement process, and to interact with antibody dependent cytotoxic cells normally present.
For example, purified, sterile filtered antibodies are optionally conjugated to a cytotoxin such as ricin for use in AIDS therapy. U.S. patent application Ser. No. 07/350,895 illustrates methods for making and using immunotoxins for the treatment of HIV infection. The methods of this invention, for example, are suitable for obtaining humanized antibodies for use as immunotoxins for use in AIDS therapy.
The cytotoxic moiety of the immunotoxin may be a cytotoxic drug or an enzymatically active toxin of bacterial, fungal, plant or animal origin, or an enzymatically active fragment of such a toxin. Enzymatically active toxins and fragments thereof used are diptheria A chain, nonbinding active fragments of diphtheria toxin, exotoxin A chain (from Pseudomonas aeruginosa), ricin A chain, abrin A chain, modeccin A chain, alpha-sarcin, Aleurites fordii proteins, dianthin proteins, Phytolaca americana proteins (PAPI, PAPII, and PAP-S), momordica charantia inhibitor, curcin, crotin, sapaonaria officinalis inhibitor, gelonin, mitogellin, restrictocin, phenomycin, enomycin and the tricothecens. In another embodiment, the antibodies are conjugated to small molecule anticancer drugs such as cis-platin or 5FU. Conjugates of the monoclonal antibody and such cytotoxic moieties are made using a variety of bifunctional protein coupling agents. Examples of such reagents are SPDP, IT, bifunctional derivatives of imidoesters such as dimethyl adipimidate HCl, active esters such as disuccinimidyl suberate, aldehydes such as glutaraldehyde, bis-azido compounds such as bis (p-azidobenzoyl) hexanediamine, bis-diazonium derivatives such as bis-(p-diazoniumbenzoyl)-ethylenediamine, diisocyantes such as tolylene 2,6-diisocyanate are bis-active fluorine compounds such as 1,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. The lysing portion of a toxin may be joined to the Fab fragment of the antibodies.
Immunotoxins can be made in a variety of ways, as discussed herein. Commonly known crosslinking reagents can be used to yield stable conjugates.
Advantageously, monoclonal antibodies specifically binding the domain of the antigen which is exposed on the infected cell surface, are conjugated to ricin A chain. Most advantageously the ricin A chain is deglycosylated and produced through recombinant means. An advantageous method of making the ricin immunotoxin is described in Vitetta et al., Science 238:1098 (1987).
When used to kill infected human cells in vitro for diagnostic purposes, the conjugates will typically be added to the cell culture medium at a concentration of at least about 10 nM. The formulation and mode of administration for in vitro use are not critical. Aqueous formulations that are compatible with the culture or perfusion medium will normally be used. Cytotoxicity may be read by conventional techniques.
Cytotoxic radiopharmaceuticals for treating infected cells may be made by conjugating radioactive isotopes (e.g. I, Y, Pr) to the antibodies. Advantageously alpha particle-emitting isotopes are used. The term "cytotoxic moiety" as used herein is intended to include such isotopes.
In a preferred embodiment, ricin A chain is deglycosylated or produced without oligosaccharides, to decrease its clearance by irrelevant clearance mechanisms (e.g., the liver). In another embodiment, whole ricin (A chain plus B chain) is conjugated to antibody if the galactose binding property of B-chain can be blocked ("blocked ricin").
In a further embodiment toxin-conjugates are made with Fab or F(ab')2 fragments. Because of their relatively small size these fragments can better penetrate tissue to reach infected cells.
In another embodiment, fusogenic liposomes are filled with a cytotoxic drug and the liposomes are coated with antibodies specifically binding the particular antigen.
Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity
Certain aspects of this invention involves antibodies which are (a) directed against a particular antigen and (b) belong to a subclass or isotype that is capable of mediating the lysis of cells to which the antibody molecule binds. More specifically, these antibodies should belong to a subclass or isotype that, upon complexing with cell surface proteins, activates serum complement and/or mediates antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by activating effector cells such as natural killer cells or macrophages.
Biological activity of antibodies is known to be determined, to a large extent, by the constant domains of Fc region of the antibody molecule (Uananue and Benacerraf, Textbook of Immunology, 2nd Edition, Williams & Wilkins, p. 218 (1984)). This includes their ability to activate complement and to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) as effected by leukocytes. Antibodies of different classes and subclasses differ in this respect as do antibodies from the same subclass but different species; according to the present invention, antibodies of those classes having the desired biological activity are prepared. Preparation of these antibodies involves the selection of antibody constant domains are their incorporation in the humanized antibody by known technique. For example, mouse immunoglobulins in the IgG3 and IgG2a class are capable of activating serum complement upon binding to the target cells which express the cognate antigen, and therefore humanized antibodies which incorporate IgG3 and IgG2a effector functions are desirable for certain therapeutic applications.
In general, mouse antibodies of the IgG2a and IgG3 subclass and occasionally IgG1 can mediate ADCC, and antibodies of the IgG3, IgG2a, and IgM subclasses bind and active serum complement. Complement activation generally requires the binding of at least two IgG molecules in close proximity on the target. However, the binding of only one IgM molecule activates serum complement.
The ability of any particular antibody to mediate lysis of the target cell by complement activation and/or ADCC can be assayed. The cells of interest are grown and labeled in vitro; the antibody is added to the cell culture in combination with either serum complement or immune cells which may be activated by the antigen antibody complexes. Cytolysis of the target cells is detected by the release of label from the lysed cells. In fact, antibodies can be screened using the patient's own serum as a source of complement and/or immune cells. The antibody that is capable of activating complement or mediating ADCC in the in vitro test can then be used therapeutically in that particular patient.
This invention specifically encompasses consensus Fc antibody domains prepared and used according to the teachings of this invention.
Therapeutic and Other Uses of the Antibodies
When used in vivo for therapy, the antibodies of the subject invention are administered to the patient in therapeutically effective amounts (i.e. amounts that have desired therapeutic effect). They will normally be administered parenterally. The dose and dosage regimen will depend upon the degree of the infection, the characteristics of the particular antibody or immunotoxin used, e.g., its therapeutic index, the patient, and the patient's history. Advantageously the antibody or immunotoxin is administered continuously over a period of 1-2 weeks, intravenously to treat cells in the vasculature and subcutaneously and intraperitoneally to treat regional lymph nodes. Optionally, the administration is made during the course of adjunct therapy such as combined cycles of radiation, chemotherapeutic treatment, or administration of tumor necrosis factor, interferon or other cytoprotective or immunomodulatory agent.
For parenteral administration the antibodies will be formulated in a unit dosage injectable form (solution, suspension, emulsion) in association with a pharmaceutically acceptable parenteral vehicle. Such vehicles are inherently nontoxic, and non-therapeutic. Examples of such vehicle are water, saline, Ringer's solution, dextrose solution, and 5% human serum albumin. Nonaqueous vehicles such as fixed oils and ethyl oleate can also be used. Liposomes may be used as carriers. The vehicle may contain minor amounts of additives such as substances that enhance isotonicity and chemical stability, e.g., buffers and preservatives. The antibodies will typically be formulated in such vehicles at concentrations of about 1 mg/ml to 10 mg/ml.
Use of IgM antibodies may be preferred for certain applications, however IgG molecules by being smaller may be more able than IgM molecules to localize to certain types of infected cells.
There is evidence that complement activation in vivo leads to a variety of biological effects, including the induction of an inflammatory response and the activation of macrophages (Unanue and Benecerraf, Textbook of Immunology, 2nd Edition, Williams & Wilkins, p. 218 (1984)). The increased vasodilation accompanying inflammation may increase the ability of various agents to localize in infected cells. Therefore, antigen-antibody combinations of the type specified by this invention can be used therapeutically in many ways. Additionally, purified antigens (Hakomori, Ann. Rev. Immunol. 2:103 (1984)) or anti-idiotypic antibodies (Nepom et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:2864 (1985); Koprowski et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:216 (1984)) relating to such antigens could be used to induce an active immune response in human patients. Such a response includes the formation of antibodies capable of activating human complement and mediating ADCC and by such mechanisms cause infected cell destruction.
Optionally, the antibodies of this invention are useful in passively immunizing patients, as exemplified by the administration of humanized anti-HIV antibodies.
The antibody compositions used in therapy are formulated and dosages established in a fashion consistent with good medical practice taking into account the disorder to be treated, the condition of the individual patient, the site of delivery of the composition, the method of administration and other factors known to practitioners. The antibody compositions are prepared for administration according to the description of preparation of polypeptides for administration, infra.
Deposit of Materials
As described above, cultures of the muMAb4D5 have been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection, 10801 University Blu Manassas, Va., USA (ATCC).
This deposit was made under the provisions of the Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purpose of Patent Procedure and the Regulations thereunder (Budapest Treaty). This assures maintenance of viable cultures for 30 years from the date of the deposit. The organisms will be made available by ATCC under the terms of the Budapest Treaty, and subject to an agreement between Genentech, Inc. and ATCC, which assures permanent and unrestricted availability of the progency of the cultures to the public upon issuance of the pertinent U.S. patent or upon laying open to the public of any U.S. or foreign application, whichever comes first, and assures availability of the progency to one determined by the U.S. Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks to be entitled thereto according to 35 USC .sctn.122 and the Commissioner's rules pursuant thereto (including 37 CFR .sctn.1.12 with particular reference to 886 OG 638).
In respect to those designations in which a European patent is sought, a sample of the deposited microorganism will be made available until the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent or until the date on which the application has been refused or withdrawn or is deemed to be withdrawn, only by the issue of such a sample to an expert nominated by the person requesting the sample. (Rule 28(4) EPC)
The assignee of the present application has agreed that if the cultures on deposit should die or be lost or destroyed when cultivated under suitable conditions, they will be promptly replaced on notification with a viable specimen of the same culture. Availability of the deposited strain is not to be construed as a license to practice the invention in contravention of the rights granted under the authority of any government in accord with its patent laws.
The foregoing written specification is considered to be sufficient to enable one skilled in the art to practice the invention. The present invention is not to be limited in scope by the constructs deposited, since the deposited embodiments are intended to illustrate only certain aspects of the invention and any constructs that are functionally equivalent are within the scope of this invention. The deposit of material herein does not constitute an admission that the written description herein contained is inadequate to enable the practice of any aspect of the invention, including the best mode thereof, nor is to be construed as limiting the scope of the claims to the specific illustrations that they represent. Indeed, various modifications of the invention in addition to those shown and described herein will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description and fall within the scope of the appended claims.
It is understood that the application of the teachings of the present invention to a specific problem or situation will be within the capabilities of one having ordinary skill in the art in light of the teachings contained herein. Examples of the products of the present invention and representative processes for their isolation, use, and manufacture appear below, but should not be construed to limit the invention.
Claim 1 of 3 Claims
1. A humanized antibody variable domain comprising non-human CDR amino acid residues which bind an antigen incorporated into a human antibody variable domain, and further comprising a Framework Region (FR) amino acid substitution at a site selected from the group consisting of:
4L, 35L, 38L, 43L, 44L, 46L, 58L, 62L, 64L, 65L, 66L, 67L, 68L, 69L, 73L, 85L, 98L, 2H, 4H, 36H, 39H, 43H, 45H, 69H, 70H, 74H, 75H, 76H, 78H, and 92H, utilizing the numbering system set forth in Kabat.