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Title:  Method of inhibition of pain and inflammation during surgery comprising administration of soluble TNF receptors
United States Patent: 
7,091,181
Issued: 
August 15, 2006

Inventors: 
Demopulos; Gregory A. (Mercer Island, WA), Pierce-Palmer; Pamela (San Francisco, CA), Herz; Jeffrey M. (Mill Creek, WA)
Assignee: 
Omeros Corporation (Seattle, WA)
Appl. No.: 
09/839,633
Filed: 
April 20, 2001


 

Pharm Bus Intell & Healthcare Studies


Abstract

A method and solution for perioperatively inhibiting a variety of pain and inflammation processes at wounds from general surgical procedures including oral/dental procedures. The solution preferably includes at least one tumor necrosis factor (TNF) soluble receptor at dilute concentration in a physiologic carrier, such as saline or lactated Ringer's solution. The solution is applied locally and perioperatively to a surgical site during a surgical procedure for preemptive inhibition of pain and while avoiding undesirable side effects associated with oral, intramuscular, subcutaneous or intravenous application of larger doses of the agents.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a solution comprising at least one pharmacological agent selected from the group consisting of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, an .alpha..sub.2-receptor agonist, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, a soluble receptor and, preferably, a mixture of multiple agents in low concentrations directed at inhibiting locally the mediators of pain, inflammation, spasm and restenosis in a physiologic electrolyte carrier fluid. The invention also provides a method for perioperative delivery of the irrigation solution containing these agents directly to a surgical site, where it works locally at the receptor and enzyme levels to preemptively limit pain, inflammation, spasm and restenosis at the site. Due to the local perioperative delivery method of the present invention, a desired therapeutic effect can be achieved with lower doses of agents than are necessary when employing other methods of delivery (i.e., intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous and oral). In one embodiment, the anti-pain/anti-inflammation agents in the solution may include, in addition to the at least one pharmacological agent selected from the group consisting of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, an .alpha..sub.2-receptor agonist, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, a soluble receptor and mixtures thereof, one or more agents selected from the following classes of receptor antagonists and agonists and enzyme activators and inhibitors, each class acting through a differing molecular mechanism of action for pain and inflammation inhibition: (1) serotonin receptor antagonists; (2) serotonin receptor agonists; (3) histamine receptor antagonists; (4) bradykinin receptor antagonists; (5) kallikrein inhibitors; (6) tachykinin receptor antagonists, including neurokinin.sub.1 and neurokinin.sub.2 receptor subtype antagonists; (7) calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists; (8) interleukin receptor antagonists; (9) inhibitors of enzymes active in the synthetic pathway for arachidonic acid metabolites, including (a) phospholipase inhibitors, including PLA.sub.2 isoform inhibitors and PLC.sub..gamma.isoform inhibitors, (b) cyclooxygenase inhibitors, and (c) lipooxygenase inhibitors; (10) prostanoid receptor antagonists including eicosanoid EP-1 and EP-4 receptor subtype antagonists and thromboxane receptor subtype antagonists; (11) leukotriene receptor antagonists including leukotriene B.sub.4 receptor subtype antagonists and leukotriene D.sub.4 receptor subtype antagonists; (12) opioid receptor agonists, including .mu.-opioid, .delta.-opioid, and .kappa.-opioid receptor subtype agonists; (13) purinoceptor agonists and antagonists including P.sub.2X receptor antagonists and P.sub.2Y receptor agonists; and (14) adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channel openers. Each of the above agents functions either as an anti-inflammatory agent and/or as an anti-nociceptive, i.e., anti-pain or analgesic, agent. The selection of agents from these classes of compounds is tailored for the particular application.

Several preferred embodiments of the solution of the present invention also include anti-spasm agents for particular applications. For example, anti-spasm agents may be included alone or in combination with anti-pain/anti-inflammation agents in solutions used for vascular procedures to limit vasospasm, and anti-spasm agents may be included for urologic procedures to limit spasm in the urinary tract and bladder wall. For such applications, anti-spasm agents are utilized in the solution. For example, an anti-pain/anti-inflammation agent which also serves as an anti-spasm agent may be included. Suitable anti-inflammatory/anti-pain agents which also act as anti-spasm agents include serotonin receptor antagonists, tachykinin receptor antagonists, and ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers. Other agents which may be utilized in the solution specifically for their anti-spasm properties include calcium channel antagonists, endothelin receptor antagonists and the nitric oxide donors (enzyme activators).

Specific preferred embodiments of the solution of the present invention for use in cardiovascular and general vascular procedures include anti-restenosis agents, which most preferably are used in combination with anti-spasm agents. Suitable anti-restenosis agents include: (1) antiplatelet agents including: (a) thrombin inhibitors and receptor antagonists, (b) adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists (also known as purinoceptor.sub.1 receptor antagonists), (c) thromboxane inhibitors and receptor antagonists and (d) platelet membrane glycoprotein receptor antagonists; (2) inhibitors of cell adhesion molecules, including (a) selectin inhibitors and (b) integrin inhibitors; (3) anti-chemotactic agents; (4) interleukin receptor antagonists (which also serve as anti-pain/anti-inflammation agents); and (5) intracellular signaling inhibitors including: (a) protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, (b) modulators of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatases, (c) inhibitors of src homology.sub.2 (SH2) domains, and (d) calcium channel antagonists. Such agents are useful in preventing restenosis of arteries treated by angioplasty, rotational atherectomy or other cardiovascular or general vascular therapeutic or diagnostic procedure.

The present invention also provides a method for manufacturing a medicament compounded as a dilute irrigation solution for use in continuously irrigating an operative site or wound during an operative procedure. The method entails dissolving in a physiologic electrolyte carrier fluid at least one pharmacological agent selected from the group consisting of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, an .alpha..sub.2-receptor agonist, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, a soluble receptor and mixtures thereof, and preferably at least one additional anti-pain/anti-inflammatory agent, and for some applications anti-spasm agents and/or anti-restenosis agents, each agent included at a concentration of preferably no more than 100,000 nanomolar, and more preferably no more than 10,000 nanomolar.

The method of the present invention provides for the delivery of a dilute combination of multiple receptor antagonists and agonists and enzyme inhibitors and activators directly to a wound or operative site, during therapeutic or diagnostic procedures for the inhibition of pain, inflammation, spasm and restenosis. Since the active ingredients in the solution are being locally applied directly to the operative tissues in a continuous fashion, the drugs may be used efficaciously at extremely low doses relative to those doses required for therapeutic effect when the same drugs are delivered orally, intramuscularly, subcutaneously or intravenously. As used herein, the term "local" encompasses application of a drug in and around a wound or other operative site, and excludes oral, subcutaneous, intravenous and intramuscular administration. The term "continuous" as used herein encompasses uninterrupted application, repeated application at frequent intervals (e.g., repeated intravascular boluses at frequent intervals intraprocedurally), and applications which are uninterrupted except for brief cessations such as to permit the introduction of other drugs or agents or procedural equipment, such that a substantially constant predetermined concentration is maintained locally at the wound or operative site.

The advantages of low dose applications of agents are three-fold. The most important is the absence of systemic side effects that often limit the usefulness of these agents. Additionally, the agents selected for particular applications in the solutions of the present invention are highly specific with regard to the mediators on which they work. This specificity is maintained by the low dosages utilized. Finally, the cost of these active agents per operative procedure is low.

The advantages of local administration of the agents via luminal irrigation or other fluid application are the following: (1) local administration guarantees a known concentration at the target site, regardless of interpatient variability in metabolism, blood flow, etc.; (2) because of the direct mode of delivery, a therapeutic concentration is obtained instantaneously and, thus, improved dosage control is provided; and (3) local administration of the active agents directly to a wound or operative site also substantially reduces degradation of the agents through extracellular processes, e.g., first- and second-pass metabolism, that would otherwise occur if the agents were given orally, intravenously, subcutaneously or intramuscularly. This is particularly true for those active agents that are peptides, which are metabolized rapidly. Thus, local administration permits the use of compounds or agents which otherwise could not be employed therapeutically. For example, some agents in the following classes are peptidic: bradykinin receptor antagonists; tachykinin receptor antagonists; opioid receptor agonists; CGRP receptor antagonists; and interleukin receptor antagonists. Local, continuous delivery to the wound or operative site minimizes drug degradation or metabolism while also providing for the continuous replacement of that portion of the agent that may be degraded, to ensure that a local therapeutic concentration, sufficient to maintain receptor occupancy, is maintained throughout the duration of the operative procedure.

Local administration of the solution perioperatively throughout a surgical procedure in accordance with the present invention produces a preemptive analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic or anti-restenotic effect. As used herein, the term "perioperative" encompasses application intraprocedurally, pre- and intraprocedurally, intra- and postprocedurally, and pre-, intra- and postprocedurally. To maximize the preemptive anti-inflammatory, analgesic (for certain applications), antispasmodic (for certain applications) and antirestenotic (for certain applications) effects, the solutions of the present invention are most preferably applied pre-, intra- and postoperatively. By occupying the target receptors or inactivating or activating targeted enzymes prior to the initiation of significant operative trauma locally, the agents of the present solution modulate specific pathways to preemptively inhibit the targeted pathologic process. If inflammatory mediators and processes are preemptively inhibited in accordance with the present invention before they can exert tissue damage, the benefit is more substantial than if given after the damage has been initiated.

Inhibiting more than one inflammatory, spasm or restenosis mediator by application of the multiple agent solution of the present invention dramatically reduces the degree of inflammation, pain, and spasm, and theoretically should reduce restenosis. In one embodiment, the irrigation solutions of the present invention include combinations of drugs, each solution acting on multiple receptors or enzymes. The drug agents are thus simultaneously effective against a combination of pathologic processes, including pain and inflammation, vasospasm, smooth muscle spasm and restenosis. The action of these agents is considered to be synergistic, in that the multiple receptor antagonists and inhibitory agonists of the present invention provide a disproportionately increased efficacy in combination relative to the efficacy of the individual agents. The synergistic action of several of the agents of the present invention are discussed, by way of example, below in the detailed descriptions of those agents.

In addition to arthroscopy, the solutions of the present invention may also be applied locally to any human body cavity or passage, operative wound, traumatic wound (e.g., burns) or in any operative/interventional procedure in which irrigation can be performed. These procedures include, but are not limited to, urological procedures, cardiovascular and general vascular diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, endoscopic procedures and oral, dental and periodontal procedures. As used hereafter, the term "wound", unless otherwise specified, is intended to include surgical wounds, operative/interventional sites, traumatic wounds and burns.

Used perioperatively, the solution should result in a clinically significant decrease in operative site pain and inflammation relative to currently-used irrigation fluids, thereby decreasing the patient's postoperative analgesic (i.e., opiate) requirement and, where appropriate, allowing earlier patient mobilization of the operative site. No extra effort on the part of the surgeon and operating room personnel is required to use the present solution relative to conventional irrigation fluids.
 


Claim 1 of 16 Claims

1. A method of preemptively inhibiting pain and inflammation at a wound during a surgical procedure, comprising delivering to the wound during a surgical procedure a solution comprising at least one tumor necrosis factor (TNF) soluble receptor, wherein the solution is applied locally and perioperatively to the surgical site.
 

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If you want to learn more about this patent, please go directly to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Web site to access the full patent.

 

 

     
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