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Title:  Treatment of demyelinating autoimmune disease with ordered peptides
United States Patent: 
7,070,780
Issued: 
July 4, 2006

Inventors: 
Steinman; Lawrence (Palo Alto, CA); Ruiz; Pedro Jose (Redwood City, CA)
Assignee: 
Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University (Palo Alto, CA)
Appl. No.: 
152654
Filed: 
May 20, 2002


 

Outsourcing Guide


Abstract

Compositions and methods are provided for the treatment of demyelinating autoimmune disease. Therapeutic doses are administered of an ordered peptide comprising a repeated motif {SEQ ID NO: 1} [.sup.1E.sup.2Y.sup.3Y.sup.4K].sub.n, where n is from 2 to 6. Some specific peptides of interest include those having the sequence {SEQ ID NO:4} EYYKEYYKEYYK. The peptide may consist only of the ordered repeats, or may be extended at either termini by the addition of other amino acid residues. For therapy, the peptides may be administered topically or parenterally, e.g. by injection at a particular site, including subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, intravascularly, or the like or transdermally, as by electrotransport. In a preferred embodiment, subcutaneous injection is used to deliver the peptide. The subject methods are used for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes. The compositions of the invention may also contain other therapeutically active agents, e.g. immunosuppressants, .beta.-interferon, steroids, etc.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Methods and compositions are provided for the treatment of demyelinating autoimmune diseases, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, by administering to the host a peptide comprising the ordered amino acid motif {SEQ ID NO:1} [.sup.1E.sup.2Y.sup.3Y.sup.4K].sub.n, where n is from 2 to 6. The ordered motif may start at residue 1, as shown, or may start at a different position, e.g. {SEQ ID NO:2} YYKEYYKE; {SEQ ID NO:3} YKEYYKEY; etc.

The compositions of the present invention may be synthesized by conventional methods known in the art, e.g. expression in a recombinant system, solid phase peptide synthesis, etc. The peptide is formulated in a biologically acceptable carrier, and administered by a route to enhance the autoimmune suppressive effects of the treatment. Typically, the peptides are administered to patients suffering from multiple sclerosis on a regular basis. In a preferred embodiment, the composition is lyophilized and formed into an aqueous solution suitable for sub-cutaneous injection.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS

Demyelinating autoimmune diseases, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, are treated by administering a therapeutic ordered peptide. The ordered peptides are formulated in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier for a convenient route of administration, which may be subcutaneous, oral, by inhalation, etc. as known in the art.

The subject methods are used for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes. As used herein, the term "treating" is used to refer to both prevention of disease, and treatment of pre-existing conditions. The prevention of autoimmune disease is accomplished by administration of the peptide prior to development of overt disease. The treatment of ongoing disease, in order to stabilize or improve the clinical symptoms of the patient, is of particular interest. Such treatment is desirably performed prior to loss of function in the affected tissues. Evidence of therapeutic effect may be any diminution in the severity of disease, particularly measuring the frequency of relapses in patients being treated with the ordered peptides, which may be the length of time the patient is relapse free, or the mean relapse frequency.

Therapeutic ordered peptides of the present invention comprise the ordered amino acid motif {SEQ ID NO:1} [.sup.1E.sup.2Y.sup.3Y.sup.4K].sub.n, where n is from 2 to 6. The ordere motif may start at residue 1, as shown, or may start at a different position, e.g. {SEQ ID NO:6} YYKEYYKEYYKE; {SEQ ID NO: 7} KEYYKEYYKEYY, etc. The total length of the ordered peptide sequence will usually be at least about 8 amino acids in length and not more than about 24 amino acids in length, usually at least about 10 and not more than about 20. Specific peptides of interest include the sequence {SEQ ID NO:4} EYYKEYYKEYYK. The peptide may consist only of the ordered repeats, or may be extended at either termini by the addition of other amino acid residues.

Modification and changes may be made in the structure of the ordered peptide and still obtain a molecule having the desired characteristic of suppressing demyelinating autoimmune disease. The desired properties may be determined, at least in part, in an in vitro assay, where binding to the MHC antigen HLA-DR, particularly HLA-DR2 (DRB1*1501), is indicative of the relevant biological activity.

For example, certain amino acids may be substituted for other amino acids in a protein structure without appreciable loss of function. It will be understood by one of skill in the art that various changes (such as to protein stability or efficiency) may be made in the sequence of the ordered peptide without appreciable loss of their biological utility or activity, particularly as to the additional of terminal amino acids. So long as a change maintains the binding properties and immunological activity, the resultant protein will be considered a biologically functional equivalent for the purposes of the invention.

The peptides may be provided in a variety of ways, being joined to non-wild-type flanking regions, as fused proteins, joined by linking groups or directly covalently linked through cysteine (disulfide) or peptide linkages. The peptides may be joined to a single amino acid at the N- or C-terminus or a chain of amino acids. The fused peptides may be extended to provide convenient linking sites, e.g. cysteine or lysine, to enhance stability, to bind to particular receptors, to provide for site-directed action, to provide for ease of purification, to alter the physical characteristics (e.g. solubility, charge, etc.), to stabilize the conformation, etc. The peptide may be N-terminal, C-terminal or internal in relation to these added sequences.

The peptide may be linked through a variety of bifunctional agents, such as maleimidobenzoic acid, methyldithioacetic acid, mercaptobenzoic acid, S-pyridyl dithiopropionate, etc. The oligopeptides may be linked to proteins to provide site-directed action. The oligopeptides may be linked, particularly by an intracellular cleavable linkage, to antibodies for site directed action. For conjugation techniques, see, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,817,837; 3,853,914; 3,850,752; 3,905,654; 4,156,081; 4,069,105; and 4,043,989, which are incorporated herein by reference. The oligopeptides may also be modified by incorporation into the lumen of vesicles, e.g. liposomes, which in turn may be bound to ligands or receptors for direction to particular cells or tissue.

For therapy, the peptides may be administered topically or parenterally, e.g. by injection at a particular site, including subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, intravascularly, or the like or transdermally, as by electrotransport. In a preferred embodiment, subcutaneous injection is used to deliver the peptide. The oligopeptides may also be administered in a sustained release formulation or osmotic pump, to provide a depot of active peptide for slow release over an extended period. Such delivery may decrease the dosage of drug required and may also decrease the number of treatments necessary to achieve a therapeutic effect.

The oligopeptides of this invention may be prepared in accordance with conventional techniques, such as synthesis, recombinant techniques, or the like. For example, solid-phase peptide synthesis involves the successive addition of amino acids to create a linear peptide chain (see Merrifield (1963) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85:2149 2154). Production of the peptide by recombinant DNA technology may also be performed. One first synthesizes or otherwise creates a nucleic acid sequence that encodes the desired peptide. This coding sequence is operably connected to suitable control elements for expression, e.g. promoters, terminators, ATG start codon, and the like as known in the art. This expression construct is introduced into a suitable host cell, and the recombinant protein that is produced is isolated. Alternatively, the coding sequence is introduced into the host to be treated for long term therapy, for example by inserting an expression construct into muscle or long-lived hematopoietic cells for therapy. The expression vector may be a plasmid, viral vector, including retrovirus, adenovirus, etc., and may be introduced by transduction, DNA vaccination, etc.

Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the peptides also fall within the scope of the compounds as disclosed herein. The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" as used herein means an inorganic acid addition salt such as hydrochloride, sulfate, and phosphate, or an organic acid addition salt such as acetate, maleate, fumarate, tartrate, and citrate. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable metal salts are alkali metal salts such as sodium salt and potassium salt, alkaline earth metal salts such as magnesium salt and calcium salt, aluminum salt, and zinc salt. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable ammonium salts are ammonium salt and tetramethylammonium salt. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable organic amine addition salts are salts with morpholine and piperidine. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable amino acid addition salts are salts with lysine, glycine, and phenylalanine.

The subject methods are used to treat individuals suffering from demyelinating autoimmune disease. Diagnosis of suitable patients may utilize a variety of criteria known to those of skill in the art. A quantitative increase in myelin autoreactive T cells with the capacity to secrete IFN-gamma is associated with the pathogenesis of MS and EAE. During the presymptomatic period there is infiltration of leukocytes into the cerebrospinal fluid, inflammation and demyelination. Family histories and the presence of the HLA haplotype DRB1*1501,DQA1*0102, DQB1*0602 are indicative of a susceptibility to the disease. Treatment during the early stages of the disease is preferred, in order to slow down or arrest the further loss of neural function.

Patients are diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis according to conventional clinical criteria. Such criteria rely on the presence of two attacks at least one month apart, where an attack is a sudden appearance of or worsening of an MS symptom or symptoms which lasts at least 24 hours; and more than one area of damage to central nervous system myelin. The damage to myelin must have occurred at more than one point in time and not have been caused by any other disease that can cause demyelination or similar neurologic symptoms.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is the preferred method of imaging the brain to detect the presence of plaques or scarring caused by MS, although CT scans may also be used. Other symptoms include disability in mental, emotional, and language functions, movement and coordination, vision, balance, and the functions of the five senses. Evoked potential tests are electrical diagnostic studies which can show if there is a slowing of messages in the various parts of the brain, and may provide evidence of scarring along nerve pathways that is not apparent on a neurologic exam. Cerebrospinal fluid, usually taken by a spinal tap, may be tested for levels of cytokines, and for the presence of oligoclonal antibody band.

The therapeutic effect may be measured in terms of clinical outcome, or may rely on immunological or biochemical tests. Suppression of the deleterious T-cell activity can be measured by enumeration of myelin-reactive Th1 cells in spinal fluid, by quantitating the release of cytokines at the sites of lesions, or using other assays for the presence of autoimmune T cells known in the art. Alternatively, one may look for a reduction in symptoms of a disease, such as the damage to neural tissue observed in MS, or the decrease in-the number or severity of attacks of MS suffered by MS patients. Damage to neural tissue can be assessed for example by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and measurement of the number and severity of lesions visible therein. Reduction in MS attack number or severity can be assessed for example by clinical evaluation of patients. Methods for both MRI and clinical evaluation are well-known in the art.

Various methods for administration may be employed. The formulation may be given orally, by inhalation, or may be injected, e.g. intravascular, intratumor, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, etc. The dosage of the therapeutic formulation will vary widely, depending upon the nature of the disease, the frequency of administration, the manner of administration, the clearance of the agent from the host, and the like. The initial dose may be larger, followed by smaller maintenance doses. The dose may be administered as infrequently as weekly or biweekly, or fractionated into smaller doses and administered daily, semi-weekly, etc. to maintain an effective dosage level. In many cases, oral administration will require a higher dose than if administered intravenously.

The peptides of the invention can be incorporated into a variety of formulations for therapeutic administration. More particularly, the complexes can be formulated into pharmaceutical compositions by combination with appropriate, pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or diluents, and may be formulated into preparations in solid, semi-solid, liquid or gaseous forms, such as tablets, capsules, powders, granules, ointments, solutions, suppositories, injections, inhalants, gels, microspheres, and aerosols. As such, administration of the peptides can be achieved in various ways, including oral, buccal, rectal, parenteral, intraperitoneal, intradermal, transdermal, intracheal, etc., administration. The peptides may be systemic after administration or may be localized by the use of an implant that acts to retain the active dose at the site of implantation.

In pharmaceutical dosage forms, the peptides may be administered in the form of their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, or they may also be used alone or in appropriate association, as well as in combination with other pharmaceutically active compounds. The following methods and excipients are merely exemplary and are in no way limiting.

For oral preparations, the peptides can be used alone or in combination with appropriate additives to make tablets, powders, granules or capsules, for example, with conventional additives, such as lactose, mannitol, corn starch or potato starch; with binders, such as crystalline cellulose, cellulose derivatives, acacia, corn starch or gelatins; with disintegrators, such as corn starch, potato starch or sodium carboxymethylcellulose; with lubricants, such as talc or magnesium stearate; and if desired, with diluents, buffering agents, moistening agents, preservatives and flavoring agents.

The peptides can be formulated into preparations for injections by dissolving, suspending or emulsifying them in an aqueous or nonaqueous solvent, such as vegetable or other similar oils, synthetic aliphatic acid glycerides, esters of higher aliphatic acids or propylene glycol; and if desired, with conventional additives such as solubilizers, isotonic agents, suspending agents, emulsifying agents, stabilizers and preservatives.

The peptides can be utilized in aerosol formulation to be administered via inhalation. The compounds of the present invention can be formulated into pressurized acceptable propellants such as dichlorodifluoromethane, propane, nitrogen and the like.

Furthermore, the peptides can be made into suppositories by mixing with a variety of bases such as emulsifying bases or water-soluble bases. The peptides of the present invention can be administered rectally via a suppository. The suppository can include vehicles such as cocoa butter, carbowaxes and polyethylene glycols, which melt at body temperature, yet are solidified at room temperature.

Unit dosage forms for oral or rectal administration such as syrups, elixirs, and suspensions may be provided wherein each dosage unit, for example, teaspoonful, tablespoonful, tablet or suppository, contains a predetermined amount of the composition containing one or more compounds of the present invention. Similarly, unit dosage forms for injection or intravenous administration may comprise the compound of the present invention in a composition as a solution in sterile water, normal saline or another pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

Implants for sustained release formulations are well-known in the art. Implants are formulated as microspheres, slabs, etc. with biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymers. For example, polymers of lactic acid and/or glycolic acid form an erodible polymer that is well-tolerated by the host. The implant containing peptides is placed in proximity to the site of action, so that the local concentration of active agent is increased relative to the rest of the body.

The term "unit dosage form," as used herein, refers to physically discrete units suitable as unitary dosages for human and animal subjects, each unit containing a predetermined quantity of peptides of the present invention calculated in an amount sufficient to produce the desired effect in association with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent, carrier or vehicle. The specifications for the novel unit dosage forms of the present invention depend on the particular complex employed and the effect to be achieved, and the pharmacodynamics associated with each complex in the host.

The pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, such as vehicles, adjuvants, carriers or diluents, are readily available to the public. Moreover, pharmaceutically acceptable auxiliary substances, such as pH adjusting and buffering agents, tonicity adjusting agents, stabilizers, wetting agents and the like, are readily available to the public.

The compositions of the invention may also contain other therapeutically active agents, e.g. immunosuppressants, .beta.-interferon, steroids, etc. Of particular interest are combinations with other agents capable of additive or synergistic effect in achieving a therapeutic result, e.g. where a different or complementary pathway is affected by each of the active agents. Immunosuppressants of interest include cyclosporins A and G, FK-506, mycophenylate mofetil, rapamycin, azathioprine, antibodies for plasma membrane proteins associated with graft rejection, such as immunosuppressive oligopep/tides derived from MHC molecules. Antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal drugs may also be co-formulated in order to minimize the effects of immunosuppression.

Depending on the patient and condition being treated and on the administration route, the peptides will generally be administered in dosages of 0.01 mg to 500 mg V/kg body weight per day, e.g. about 20 mg/day for an average person. The range is broad, since in general the efficacy of a therapeutic effect for different mammals varies widely with doses typically being 20, 30 or even 40 times smaller (per unit body weight) in man than in the rat. Similarly the mode of administration can have a large effect on dosage. Thus for example oral dosages in the rat may be ten times the injection dose. A typical dosage may be one injection daily.

Those of skill will readily appreciate that dose levels can vary as a function of the specific compound, the severity of the symptoms and the susceptibility of the subject to side effects. Some of the specific peptides are more potent than others. Preferred dosages for a given complex are readily determinable by those of skill in the art by a variety of means. A preferred means is to measure the physiological potency of a given compound.

It is to be understood that this invention is not limited to the particular methodology, protocols, formulations and reagents described, as such may, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention which will be limited only by the appended claims.
 


Claim 1 of 6 Claims

1. A method of treating multiple sclerosis, the method comprising: administering to a patient suffering from multiple sclerosis a pharmaceutical formulation comprising an effective dose of a peptide consisting of the ordered amino acid motif set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1, (EYYK).sub.n, wherein n is from 2 to 6; and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier; wherein the clinical symptoms of multiple sclerosis are reduced.
 

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