Title: Methods and compositions
for treating vascular dementia
United States Patent: 7,078,202
Issued: July 18, 2006
Inventors: Cheung; Ling Yuk
(Hong Kong, HK)
Assignee: Ultra Biotech
Limited (Douglas, GB)
Appl. No.: 717136
Filed: November 18, 2003
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Compositions comprising a plurality of
yeast cells, wherein said plurality of yeast cells have been cultured in
the presence of an alternating electric field having a specific frequency
and a specific field strength for a period of time sufficient to increase
the capability of said plurality of yeast cells to treat vascular dementia
in a mammal. Also included are methods of making such compositions and
methods of treating vascular dementia.
Description of the Invention
FIELD OF THE
The invention relates to compositions
that treat vascular dementia and can be taken as dietary supplements or
medication. The compositions comprise yeast cells obtainable by growth in
electromagnetic fields with specific frequencies and field strengths.
BACKGROUND OF THE
Vascular Dementia (VaD) is defined as the
loss of cognitive function resulting from ischemic, ischemic-hypoxic, or
hemorrhagic brain lesions as a result of cardiovascular diseases and
cardiovascular pathologic changes. See, e.g., G. C. Roman, Med. Clin.
North. Am., 86, pp. 477-99 (2002). VaD is a chronic disorder and the
symptoms of VaD include cognitive loss, headaches, insomnia and memory
loss. VaD may be caused by multiple strokes (MID or poststroke dementia)
but also by single strategic strokes, multiple lacunes, and hypoperfusive
lesions such as border zone infarcts and ischemic periventricular
leukoencephalopathy (Binswanger's disease). See, G. C. Roman, supra. In
Asian countries such as China, Japan and Korea, VaD is observed in over
60% of patients with dementia. Primary and secondary prevention of stroke
and cardiovascular disease decreases the burden of VaD.
Treatment of VaD involves control of risk factors (i.e., hypertension,
diabetes, smoking, hyperfibrinogenemia, hyperhomocystinemia, orthostatic
hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias). See, G. C. Roman, supra. Researchers
have also investigated whether hormone replacement therapy and estrogen
replacement therapy could delay the onset of dementia in women. See, E.
Hogervorst et al., Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 3, CD003799 (2002).
Although there has been evidence that aspirin is widely prescribed for VaD,
there is very limited evidence that aspirin is effective in treating
patients with VaD. See, P. S. Williams et al., Cochrane Database Syst.
Rev., 2, CD001296 (2000). Nimodipine has been implicated as a drug
demonstrating short-term benefits in VaD patients, but has not been
justified as a long-term anti-dementia drug. See, J. M. Lopez-Arrieta and
J. Birks, Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 3, CD000147 (2002). Further,
clinical efficacy data of piracetam does not support the use of this drug
in the treatment of dementia or cognitive impairment. L. Flicker and G.
Grimley Evans, Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 2, CD001011 (2001). Thus, an
agent that is effective in treating VaD is highly desired in the market.
SUMMARY OF THE
This invention is based on the discovery
that certain yeast cells can be activated by electromagnetic fields having
specific frequencies and field strengths to produce substances that assist
in treating vascular dementia. The composition of this invention can be
taken as dietary supplements in the form of health drinks or pills.
This invention embraces a composition comprising a plurality of yeast
cells that have been cultured in the presence of an alternating electric
field having a frequency in the range of about 10280 to 13000 MHz and a
field strength in the range of about 200 to 500 mV/cm, as compared to
yeast cells not having been so cultured. In one embodiment, the frequency
of the culturing is in the range of about 10280 to 10400 MHz, 12320 to
12380 MHz or 12950 to 13000 MHz. In one embodiment, the field strength is
in the range of about 200 to 400 mV/cm. The yeast cells are cultured in
the alternating electric field for a period of time sufficient to increase
the capability of said plurality of yeast cells to improve the memory of a
mammal with vascular dementia, as compared to unactivated yeast cells.
Preferably, the mammal is human. In one embodiment, the vascular dementia
was induced by cerebral ischemia. In another embodiment, the vascular
dementia was induced by blockage of the middle cerebral artery. In one
embodiment, the frequency and/or the field strength of the alternating
electric field can be altered within the aforementioned ranges during said
period of time. In other words, the yeast cells can be exposed to a series
of electromagnetic fields. An exemplary period of time is about 80-140
Also included in this invention is a composition comprising a plurality of
yeast cells that have been cultured under acidic conditions in an
alternating electric field having a frequency in the range of about
12950-13000 MHz and a field strength in the range of about 240 to 460
mV/cm (e.g., 240-260, 320-350, 360-390 or 420-460 mV/cm). In one
embodiment, the yeast cells are exposed to a series of electromagnetic
fields. An exemplary period of time is about 80-190 hours.
Included in this invention are also methods of making the above
compositions and methods of treating vascular dementia.
Yeast cells that can be included in this composition can all be derived
from the China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center ("CGMCC")
(China Committee for Culture Collection of Microorganisms, Institute of
Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Haidian, P.O. BOX 2714,
Beijing, 100080, China). Useful yeast species include, but are not limited
to, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces sake, Saccharomyces uvarum,
Saccharomyces rouxii, Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, Rhodotorula aurantiaca
and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For instance, the yeast cells can be of the
strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen IFF11340. In another embodiment,
the yeast cells are from the strains selected from the group consisting of
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen AS 2.501, AS2.502, AS2.503, AS2.504,
AS2.535, AS2.558, AS2.560, AS2.561 and AS2.562. Other useful yeast species
are illustrated in Table 1.
Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein
have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in
the art to which this invention belongs. Exemplary methods and materials
are described below, although methods and materials similar or equivalent
to those described herein can also be used in the practice or testing of
the present invention. All publications and other references mentioned
herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. In case of
conflict, the present specification, including definitions, will control.
The materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not
intended to be limiting. Throughout this specification and claims, the
word "comprise," or variations such as "comprises" or "comprising" will be
understood to imply the inclusion of a stated integer or group of integers
but not the exclusion of any other integer or group of integers.
Claim 1 of 13 Claims
1. A composition comprising a
plurality of yeast cells, wherein said plurality of yeast cells are
characterized by an increase in their capability to improve the memory of a
mammal with vascular dementia as a result of having been cultured in the
presence of an alternating electric field having a frequency in the range of
about 10280 to 13000 MHz and a field strength in the range of about 200 to
500 mV/cm as compared to yeast cells not having been so cultured.
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