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Title:  Monoclonal antibody specific for advanced glycosylation endproducts in biological samples
United States Patent: 
RE39,138
Issued: 
June 20, 2006

Inventors:
 Founds; Henry W. (Mendham, NJ); Sadeghi; Homayoun (Chalfont, PA)
Assignee:
  Alteon Incorporated (Parsippany, NJ)
Appl. No.:
 465444
Filed: 
December 16, 1999


 

George Washington University's Healthcare MBA


Abstract

The present invention relates to monoclonal antibodies to advanced glycosylation endproducts formed in vivo and cross-reactive with advanced glycosylation endproducts formed in vitro, and to methods of diagnosis and therapy based thereon. More particularly, the invention is directed to a monoclonal antibody, or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, reactive with in vivo produced advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs), which monoclonal antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof demonstrates an immunological binding characteristic of monoclonal antibody 4G9 as produced by hybridoma 4G9, deposited with the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and assigned Accession Number CRL 11626, on Apr. 27, 1994. In a specific embodiment, the 4G9 antibody is used in a sandwich ELISA to detect ApoB-AGE, IgG-AGE, collagen-AGE, serum-AGE peptides and proteins and urinary-AGE peptides and proteins.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to a monoclonal antibody, or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, reactive with in vivo-produced advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs). In particular, said monoclonal antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof can demonstrate the immunological binding characteristics of monoclonal antibody 4G9 as produced by hybridoma 4G9, deposited with the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and assigned Accession Number CRL 11626, on Apr. 27, 1994. Naturally, the invention extends to the hybridoma as well. Thus, the invention advantageously provides an indefinitely prolonged cell source of a monoclonal antibody of the invention: the hybridoma.

The invention further relates to diagnostic assay methods and kits that comprise the monoclonal antibody of the invention and to therapeutic methods based thereon.

Various terms are used herein, which have the following meanings:

A molecule is "antigenic" when it is capable of specifically interacting with an antigen recognition molecule of the immune system, such as an immunoglobulin (antibody) or T cell antigen receptor. An antigenic polypeptide contains at least about 5, and preferably at least about 10, amino acids. An antigenic portion of a molecule can be that portion that is immunodominant for antibody or T cell receptor recognition, or it can be a portion used to generate an antibody to the molecule by conjugating the antigenic portion to a carrier molecule for immunization. A molecule that is antigenic need not be itself immunogenic, i.e., capable of eliciting an immune response without a carrier.

Where present, the term "immunological binding characteristics," or other binding characteristics of an antibody with an antigen, in all of its grammatical forms, refers to the specificity, affinity, cross-reactivity, and other binding characteristics of an antibody.

The term "adjuvant" refers to a compound or mixture that enhances the immune response to an antigen. An adjuvant can serve as a tissue depot that slowly releases the antigen and also as a lymphoid system activator that non-specifically enhances the immune response (Hood et al., Immunology, Second Ed., 1984, Benjamin/Cummings: Menlo Park, Calif., p. 384). Often, a primary challenge with an antigen alone, in the absence of an adjuvant, will fail to elicit a humoral or cellular immune response. Adjuvants include, but are not limited to, complete Freund's adjuvant, incomplete Freund's adjuvant, saponin, mineral gels such as aluminum hydroxide, surface active substances such as lysolecithin, pluronic polyols, polyanions, peptides, oil or hydrocarbon emulsions, keyhole limpet hemocyanins, and potentially useful human adjuvants such as BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) and Corynebacterium parvum. Preferably, the adjutant is pharmaceutically acceptable.

The present invention advantageously provides methods for preparing monoclonal antibodies having the binding characteristics of monoclonal antibody 4G9 by immunizing with an antigen such as Rnase-AGE, lysozyme-AGE, BSA-AGE and KLH-AGE. Any such antigen may be used as an immunogen to generate antibodies with the immunological characteristics of monoclonal antibody 4G9. Such antibodies include but are not limited to monoclonal, chimeric, single chain, Fab fragments, and an Fab expression library.

Various procedures known in the art may be used for the production of polyclonal antibodies corresponding to the monoclonal antibody of the present invention. For example, reproduction of antibody may proceed by the immunization of various host animals. In this embodiment, the antigen may be conjugated to an immunogenic carrier, e.g., bovine serum albumin (BSA) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or the carrier may be reacted with a reducing sugar such as glucose such that the carrier bears AGE determinants. Various adjuvants such as those set forth above, may be used to increase the immunological response, depending on the host species.

For production of monoclonal antibodies of the present invention, any technique that provides for the production of antibody molecules by continuous cell lines in culture may be used. These include but are not limited to the hybridoma technique originally developed by Kohler and Milstein (1975, Nature 256:495-497), as well as the trioma technique, the human B-cell hybridoma technique (Kozbor et al., 1983, Immunology Today 4:72), and the EBV-hybridoma technique to produce human monoclonal antibodies (Cole et al., 1985, in Monoclonal Antibodies and Cancer Therapy, Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 77-96). In an additional embodiment of the invention, monoclonal antibodies can be produced in germ-free animals utilizing recent technology (PCT/US90/02545). According to the invention, human antibodies may be used and can be obtained by using human hybridomas (Cote et al., 1983, Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:2026-2030) or by transforming human B cells with EBV virus in vitro (Cole et al., 1985, in Monoclonal Antibodies and Cancer Therapy, Alan R. Liss, pp. 77-96). In fact, according to the invention, techniques developed for the production of "chimeric antibodies" or "humanized antibodies" (Morrison et al., 1984, J. Bacteriol. 159-870; Neuberger et al., 1984, Nature 312:604-608; Takeda et al., 1985, Nature 314:452-454) by splicing the genes from a mouse antibody molecule of the present invention, e.g., monoclonal antibody 4G9, together with genes from a human antibody molecule of appropriate biological activity can be used; such antibodies are within the scope of this invention. Chimeric antibodies are those that contain a human Fc portion and a murine (or other non-human) Fv portion:humanized antibodies are those in which the murine (or other non-human) complementarity determining regions (CDR) are incorporated in a human antibody; both chimetic and humanized antibodies are monoclonal. Such human or humanized chimeric antibodies are preferred for use in in vivo diagnosis or therapy of human diseases or disorders (described infra), since the human or humanized antibodies are much less likely than xenogeneic antibodies to induce an immune response, in particular an allergic response.

According to the invention, techniques described for the production of single chain antibodies (U.S. Pat. No. 4,946,778) can be adapted to provide single chain antibodies of the present invention. An additional embodiment of the invention utilizes the techniques described for the construction of Fab expression libraries (Huse et al., 1989, Science 246: 1275-1281) to allow rapid and easy identification of monoclonal Fab fragments with the desired specificity for the antibody of the present invention, or its derivatives, or analogs.

Antibody fragments which contain the idiotype of the antibody molecule can be generated by known techniques. For examples, such fragments include but are not limited to: the F(ab').sub.2 fragment which can be produced by pepsin digestion of the antibody molecule; the Fab' fragments which can be generated by reducing the disulfide bridges of the F(ab').sub.2 fragment, and the Fab fragments which can be generated by treating the antibody molecule with papain and a reducing agent. Such antibody fragments can be generated from any of the polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies of the invention; preferably, such antibody fragments are generated using monoclonal antibody 4G9.

In the production of antibodies, screening for the desired antibody can be accomplished by techniques known in the art, e.g., radioimmunoassay, ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), "sandwich" immunoassays, immunoradiometric assays, gel diffusion precipitin reactions, immunodiffusion assays, in situ immunoassays (using colloidal gold, enzyme or radioisotope labels, for example), western blots, precipitation reactions, agglutination assays (e.g., gel agglutination assays, hemagglutination assays), complement fixation assays, immunofluorescence assays, protein A assays, and immunoelectrophoresis assays, etc. In one embodiment, antibody binding is detected by detecting a label on the primary antibody. In another embodiment, the primary antibody is detected by detecting binding of a secondary antibody or other reagent to the primary antibody. In a further embodiment, the secondary antibody is labeled. Many means are known in the art for detecting binding in an immunoassay and are within the scope of the present invention. For example, to select antibodies in accordance with the present invention, one may assay generated hybridomas for a product which binds to in vivo-formed or in vitro-formed AGEs. Alternatively, such an antibody can be selected on the basis of an ability to compete for binding of monoclonal antibody 4G9 to such AGEs.

The foregoing antibodies can be used in methods known in the art relating to the localization and activity of AGE-modified proteins or tissues, e.g., for Western blotting, ELISA, detecting AGE-modified tissue in situ, measuring levels of AGE-modified molecules, for instance, including proteins, peptides, lipids and nucleic acids, and, in particular, hemoglobin-AGE, immunoglobulin-AGE, and LDL-AGE, in appropriate physiological samples, such as serum samples.

Using the present invention, one can assess and/or detect the presence of stimulated, spontaneous, or idiopathic pathological states in mammals, by measuring the corresponding presence of advanced glycosylation endproducts. More particularly, the presence or amount of the AGEs may be followed directly by assay techniques such as those discussed herein, for example through the use of an appropriately labeled quantity of the present anti-AGE monoclonal antibody, as set forth herein.

The tissue and end organ damage caused by advanced glycosylation accumulates over a period of months to years. Diabetic complications progress over a similar duration, so that it is advantageous to detect earlier the AGE accumulation that has been linked to the development of pathology in such disease states.

In particular, the monoclonal antibody of the invention can be used to detect the presence of AGEs such as but not limited to, hemoglobin-AGE, albumin-AGE, lipid-AGEs, and AGE-modified peptides. Generally, the presence of a disease or disorder associated with AGEs can be assessed by detecting higher levels of AGEs in a biological sample from a subject who suffers from such a disease or disorder, as compared to a normal individual. The effectiveness of an agent, e.g., aminoguanidine, to prevent or inhibit the formation of AGEs can be evaluated by observing a decrease in the level of AGEs in biological samples obtained from a subject over a time interval.

For example, Hb-AGE has been determined to account for about 0.42% of circulating human hemoglobin. This fraction increases to approximately 0.75% in patients with diabetes-induced hyperglycemia. Of significance, diabetic patients treated for 28 days with aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of AGE formation in vivo, show significantly decreased levels of Hb-AGE at the end of the treatment period (International Publication No. WO 93/13421).

The present invention also extends to the measurement of other AGEs and particularly serum and urinary AGE-modified proteins and AGE-modified peptides. Serum and urinary AGE-modified peptides, like lipid-AGE and Hb-AGE, represent circulating markers of AGE accumulation that reflect the onset and extent of pathologies and other dysfunctions where such accumulation is a characteristic. Thus, those AGE-related and diabetic conditions where increased levels of AGEs have been observed, such as, for example, atherosclerosis, cataracts and diabetic nephropathy, may be monitored and assessed over the long term by the measurement of these AGEs, particularly by resort to the diagnostic methods disclosed herein.

Similarly, serum peptide-AGEs can be used as an indicator that reflects glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and kidney damage. Urinary peptide-AGEs may be used as an indicator to measure the turnover in tissue proteins, and more particularly, tissue protein bearing AGE modifications.

In the LDL-AGE, Hb-AGE, and the serum peptide-AGE assays, a blood sample is drawn and a separation procedure can be used. For measuring the level of LDL- or lipid-AGEs, a procedure such as that described in International Publication No. WO 93/13421 by Bucala et al. can be used. For detecting hemoglobin-AGE, the cellular blood components can be separated from the serum, and hemoglobin can be extracted from the red blood cells. The serum level of LDL-AGE, peptide-AGEs and the presence or extent of Hb-AGEs present can then be evaluated.

By conducting these tests with a single blood sample, a broader time frame at which blood glucose levels become uncontrolled can be estimated, e.g., a 60 day range predictable by Hb-AGE for instance, extends the period to be assessed for glycemic control to before the 3-4 week time frame which is measured by Hb-A.sub.1c determination. If desired, the analyses of Hb-AGE and serum peptide-AGEs can be run together with a glucose level determination in blood or urine, a glucose tolerance test, and other tests useful for assessing diabetes control including the measurement of urinary peptide-AGEs, to give a complete patient profile.

In a preferred aspect of the invention, LDL-AGEs are measured using the monoclonal antibody of the invention in combination with either an anti-LDL (such as, but not limited to, anti-ApoB) antibody or a polyclonal anti-AGE antibody (such as rabbit anti-RNase-AGE).

Another aspect of the invention addresses advanced glycosylation endproducts which can be detected in the urine. Proteins, including peptides, are excreted in the urine in very low amounts in normal individuals, and at elevated levels in diseased individuals. The presence and/or level of Urinary peptide-AGEs reflective of the turnover of tissue AGEs can be determined, correlated to and predictive of particular diseases or conditions.

The presence of peptides in the urine may be a symptom of numerous diseases or conditions reflective of a net catabolic state as would exist when the host or patient is undergoing invasion as by infection. Under such circumstances, the host mobilizes against the invasive stimulus by the secretion of numerous factors such as cytokines that suspend the anabolic energy storage activity and cellular repair activities and promote instead the catabolic depletion of energy stores and the recruitment of leukocytes and other factors to fight and neutralize the stimulus. The measurement of urinary peptide-AGEs provides yet another index of possible invasive activity in the host, such as cachexia and shock. Thus, one can measure the presence or level of peptide-AGEs in urine, and correlate this level to a standard. In normal individuals, the normal level may be low. In diabetic patients, the level of peptide-AGEs may be greater. Alternatively, in a subject suffering from AGE-associated advanced renal disease, the level of urinary peptides may be greatly decreased owing to the onset of renal failure. In patients experiencing infection or other trauma, the level of peptide-AGEs may be significantly greater than in normal individuals. Thus, the advancement or worsening of diabetes prior to the onset of renal complications, the onset of renal complications associated with diabetes or other AGE-related diseases, or the presence of infection could be detected by detecting urine levels of peptide-AGEs.

The anti-AGE monoclonal antibody of the invention can also be used in the treatment of patients to reduce the level or accelerate the removal of circulating AGEs or AGE-modified molecules, or similar such AGEs or AGE-modified molecules, which may be present in abnormally elevated levels in certain tissues, e.g., pancreas, liver, kidney or brain, and which AGEs may be undesired.

Additionally, it is within the scope of the invention described herein to utilize the anti-AGE monoclonal antibody for the design, screening and/or potentiation of drugs or compounds which are useful for treating elevated levels of AGEs in vivo. In this connection, the anti-AGE monoclonal antibody may be used to purify proteins that have been specially cultivated or produced for use as therapeutic agents. The therapeutic use of such proteins is increasing in prominence and importance, and such exogeneous proteins (like the host's own tissue and circulating proteins) are susceptible to glycation and the formation of AGEs. Such AGEs are chemically reactive and biologically active, so it is desirable to limit their introduction into a host during therapy. As a consequence, the present invention includes a method for purification of batches of such proteins by bringing them into contact with, for example, a quantity of the anti-AGE monoclonal antibody of the present invention, or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, immobilized on a suitable substrate. In this way the glycosylated proteins could be separated from the rest of the batch by conventional procedures. The substrate could be refreshed or replaced periodically in the instance of a commercial process, so that a continuous circulation of protein material past the substrate and subsequent separation of the protein-AGE component could be conducted. Naturally, the foregoing scheme is presented for purposes of illustration only, and is capable of various modifications in design and execution within the skill of the art and the scope of the invention.

All of the protocols disclosed herein may be applied to the qualitative and quantitative determination of advanced glycosylation endproducts and to the concomitant diagnosis and surveillance of pathologies in which the accretion of advanced glycosylation endproducts is implicated. Such conditions as diabetes and the conditions associated with aging, such as atherosclerosis and skin wrinkling represent non-limiting examples, and accordingly methods for diagnosing and monitoring these conditions are included within the scope of the present invention.

The present invention also includes assay and test kits for the quantative and/or quantitative analysis of the extent of the presence of advanced glycosylation endproducts. Such assay systems and test kits may comprise a labeled component prepared, e.g., by one of the radioactive and/or enzymatic techniques discussed herein, coupling a label to the anti-AGE monoclonal antibody of the present invention or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, or to a binding partner thereof. One of the components of the kits described herein is the anti-AGE monoclonal antibody of the present invention or the antigen-binding fragment thereof, in labeled or non-labeled form.

As stated earlier, the kits may be used to measure the presence of advanced glycosylation endproducts on recombinant or other purified proteins, and particularly those destined for therapeutic use, to assay them for AGE presence in a first instance, and in a second instance, to assist in their further purification free from material with undesired AGE modifications.

In accordance with the testing techniques discussed above, one class of such kits will contain at least the monoclonal antibody or an antigen-binding fragment thereof of the invention, means for detecting immunospecific binding of said antibody or fragment thereof to AGE components in a biological sample, and directions, of course, depending upon the method selected, e.g., "competitive", "sandwich", "DASP" and the like. The kits may also contain peripheral reagents such as buffers, stabilizers, etc.

More specifically, the preferred diagnostic test kit may further comprise a known amount of a binding partner to an anti-AGE antibody as described above, generally bound to a solid phase to form an immunosorbent, or in the alternative, bound to a suitable label.

A test kit of the invention may also further comprise a second antibody, which may be labelled or may be provided for attachment to a solid support (or attached to a solid support). Such an antibody may be, for example, an anti-AGE antibody, or an antibody specific for the non-AGE portion of the analyte to be assessed for AGE modification, or an AGE-component. Examples of the latter include, but are not limited to, anti-hemoglobin, anti-albumin, and, as shown herein, anti-ApoB. Such antibodies to the "carrier" portion of an AGE component can be polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies.

The present invention will be better understood by reference to the following Examples, which are illustrative of the invention, and are not intended as limiting of the invention. Where present, the designation "PBS" denotes phosphate-buffered saline. PBS may be prepared by dissolving 8.0 grams of NaCl, 0.2 grams of KCl, 1.44 grams of Na.sub.2HPO.sub.4, and 0.24 grams of KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 in 800 ml of distilled water, adjusting the pH to 7.2, and the volume to 1 liter. The resulting solution may be dispensed in convenient volumes and sterilized by autoclaving, and may be stored at room temperature. Likewise, the terms "Wash Solution" and "TBS-T Wash Solution" where present refer to the following: Tris Buffered Saline-Tween (TBS-T) (0.01M Trizma, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% Tween-20, 0.02% sodium azide, adjusted to pH 7.4 with HCl). The term "Assay Buffer" refers to a solution generally containing 25 mM-1M borate, pH 8.0, 150 mM NaCl, 0.01% EDTA and 1% BSA. The concentrations of the components comprising the Assay Buffer as may appear in the Examples listed below may vary within the scope of the present invention. Naturally the foregoing formulations are illustrative and may vary within the skill of the art, and are presented herein in fulfillment of the duty to present the best mode for the practice of the invention.
 


Claim 1 of 15 Claims

1. Monoclonal antibody 4G9 produced by hybridoma 4G9, deposited with the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and assigned Accession Number CRL 11626, or an antigen binding fragment thereof reactive with in vivo produced advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs).

____________________________________________
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