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Title:  Delivery of compounds for the treatment of migraine through an inhalation route
United States Patent: 
7,045,118
Issued:  
May 16, 2006

Inventors:
 Rabinowitz; Joshua D. (Mountain View, CA); Zaffaroni; Alejandro C. (Atherton, CA)
Assignee:
 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Palo Alto, CA)
Appl. No.:
 766574
Filed:
 January 27, 2004


 

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Abstract

The present invention relates to the delivery of a migraine headache drug through an inhalation route. Specifically, it relates to aerosols containing a migraine headache drug that are used in inhalation therapy. In a method aspect of the present invention, a migraine headache drug is administered to a patient through an inhalation route. The method comprises: a) heating a thin layer of a migraine headache drug, on a solid support to form a vapor; and, b) passing air through the heated vapor to produce aerosol particles having less than 5% drug degradation products. In a kit aspect of the present invention, a kit for delivering a migraine headache drug through an inhalation route is provided which comprises: a) a thin coating of an a migraine drug composition and b) a device for dispensing said thin coating as a condensation aerosol.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the delivery of migraine headache drugs through an inhalation route. Specifically, it relates to aerosols containing migraine headache drugs that are used in inhalation therapy.

In a composition aspect of the present invention, the aerosol comprises particles comprising at least 5 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug. Preferably, the particles comprise at least 10 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug. More preferably, the particles comprise at least 20 percent, 30 percent, 40 percent, 50 percent, 60 percent, 70 percent, 80 percent, 90 percent, 95 percent, 97 percent, 99 percent, 99.5 percent or 99.97 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug.

Typically, the migraine headache drug is not ergotamine tartrate or an ergotamine derivative.

Typically, the aerosol has a mass of at least 10 μg. Preferably, the aerosol has a mass of at least 100 μg. More preferably, the aerosol has a mass of at least 200 μg.

Typically, the particles comprise less than 10 percent by weight of migraine headache drug degradation products. Preferably, the particles comprise less than 5 percent by weight of migraine headache drug degradation products. More preferably, the particles comprise less than 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.1 or 0.03 percent by weight of migraine headache drug degradation products.

Typically, the particles comprise less than 90 percent by weight of water. Preferably, the particles comprise less than 80 percent by weight of water. More preferably, the particles comprise less than 70 percent, 60 percent, 50 percent, 40 percent, 30 percent, 20 percent, 10 percent, or 5 percent by weight of water.

Typically, at least 50 percent by weight of the aerosol is amorphous in form, wherein crystalline forms make up less than 50 percent by weight of the total aerosol weight, regardless of the nature of individual particles. Preferably, at least 75 percent by weight of the aerosol is amorphous in form. More preferably, at least 90 percent by weight of the aerosol is amorphous in form.

Typically, the aerosol has an inhalable aerosol particle density greater than 106 particles/mL. Preferably, the aerosol has an inhalable aerosol particle density greater than 107 particles/mL or 108 particles/mL.

Typically, the aerosol particles have a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 5 microns. Preferably, the particles have a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 3 microns. More preferably, the particles have a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2 or 1 micron(s).

Typically, the geometric standard deviation around the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the aerosol particles is less than 3.0. Preferably, the geometric standard deviation is less than 2.5. More preferably, the geometric standard deviation is less than 2.2.

Typically, the aerosol is formed by heating a composition containing a migraine headache drug to form a vapor and subsequently allowing the vapor to condense into an aerosol.

In another composition aspect of the present invention, a dose form of a migraine headache drug is provided for the treatment of migraine, wherein the dose form comprises less than the typical oral dose of the drug. Preferably, the dose form comprises less than 80 percent by weight of the typical oral dose of the drug. More preferably, the dose form comprises less than 60 percent, 40 percent, or 20 percent by weight of the typical oral dose of the drug.

Typically, the dose form further comprises less than 90 percent by weight of water. Preferably, the dose form further comprises less than 80 percent by weight of water. More preferably, the dose form further comprises less than 70 percent, 60 percent, 50 percent, 40 percent, 30 percent, 20 percent, or 10 percent by weight of water.

Typically, the dose form further comprises less than 90 percent by weight of a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. Preferably, the dose form further comprises less than 80 percent by weight of a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. More preferably, the dose form comprises less than 70 percent, 60 percent, 50 percent, 40 percent, 30 percent, 20 percent, or 10 percent by weight of a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

In a method aspect of the present invention, a migraine headache drug is delivered to a mammal through an inhalation route. The method comprises: a) heating a composition, wherein the composition comprises at least 5 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug, to form a vapor; and, b) allowing the vapor to cool, thereby forming a condensation aerosol comprising particles, which is inhaled by the mammal. Preferably, the composition that is heated comprises at least 10 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug. More preferably, the composition comprises at least 20 percent, 30 percent, 40 percent, 50 percent, 60 percent, 70 percent, 80 percent, 90 percent, 95 percent, 97 percent, 99 percent, 99.5 percent, 99.9 percent or 99.97 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug.

Typically, the particles comprise at least 5 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug. Preferably, the particles comprise at least 10 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug. More preferably, the particles comprise at least 20 percent, 30 percent, 40 percent, 50 percent, 60 percent, 70 percent, 80 percent, 90 percent, 95 percent, 97 percent, 99 percent, 99.5 percent, 99.9 percent or 99.97 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug.

Typically, the condensation aerosol has a mass of at least 10 μg. Preferably, the aerosol has a mass of at least 100 μg. More preferably, the aerosol has a mass of at least 200 μg.

Typically, the particles comprise less than 10 percent by weight of migraine headache drug degradation products. Preferably, the particles comprise less than 5 percent by weight of migraine headache drug degradation products. More preferably, the particles comprise 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.1 or 0.03 percent by weight of migraine headache drug degradation products.

Typically, the particles comprise less than 90 percent by weight of water. Preferably, the particles comprise less than 80 percent by weight of water. More preferably, the particles comprise less than 70 percent, 60 percent, 50 percent, 40 percent, 30 percent, 20 percent, 10 percent, or 5 percent by weight of water.

Typically, at least 50 percent by weight of the aerosol is amorphous in form, wherein crystalline forms make up less than 50 percent by weight of the total aerosol weight, regardless of the nature of individual particles. Preferably, at least 75 percent by weight of the aerosol is amorphous in form. More preferably, at least 90 percent by weight of the aerosol is amorphous in form.

Typically, the particles of the delivered condensation aerosol have a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 5 microns. Preferably, the particles have a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 3 microns. More preferably, the particles have a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2 or 1 micron(s). In certain embodiments the particles have an MMAD of from about 0.2 to about 3 microns.

Typically, the geometric standard deviation around the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the aerosol particles is less than 3.0. Preferably, the geometric standard deviation is less than 2.5. More preferably, the geometric standard deviation is less than 2.2.

Typically, the delivered aerosol has an inhalable aerosol particle density greater than 106 particles/mL. Preferably, the aerosol has an inhalable aerosol particle density greater than 107 particles/mL or 108 particles/mL.

Typically, the rate of inhalable aerosol particle formation of the delivered condensation aerosol is greater than 108 particles per second. Preferably, the aerosol is formed at a rate greater than 109 inhalable particles per second. More preferably, the aerosol is formed at a rate greater than 1010 inhalable particles per second.

Typically, the delivered condensation aerosol is formed at a rate greater than 0.5 mg/second. Preferably, the aerosol is formed at a rate greater than 0.75 mg/second. More preferably, the aerosol is formed at a rate greater than 1 mg/second, 1.5 mg/second or 2 mg/second.

Typically, the delivered condensation aerosol results in a peak plasma concentration of a migraine headache drug in the mammal in less than 1 h. Preferably, the peak plasma concentration is reached in less than 0.5 h. More preferably, the peak plasma concentration is reached in less than 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.02, 0.01, or 0.005 h (arterial measurement).

Typically, less than 80 percent by weight of typical oral dose of a migraine headache drug is inhaled in any 2 hour period. Preferably, less than 60 percent by weight of a typical oral dose of a migraine headache drug is inhaled in any 2 hour period. More preferably, less than 40 percent or 20 percent of a typical oral dose of a migraine headache drug is inhaled in any 2 hour period.

In another method aspect of the present invention, a method of treating migraine is provided which comprises administering a dose of a migraine headache drug to a mammal that is less than the typical oral dose. Preferably, less than 80 percent by weight of the typical oral dose of a migraine drug is administered to the mammal in any 2 hour period. More preferably, less than 60 percent, 40 percent or 20 percent of the typical dose of a migraine drug is administered to the mammal in any 2 hour period.

In a kit aspect of the present invention, a kit for delivering a migraine headache drug through an inhalation route to a mammal is provided which comprises: a) a composition comprising at least 5 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug; and, b) a device that forms a migraine headache drug aerosol from the composition, for inhalation by the mammal. Preferably, the composition comprises at least 20 percent, 30 percent, 40 percent, 50 percent, 60 percent, 70 percent, 80 percent, 90 percent, 95 percent, 97 percent, 99 percent, 99.5 percent, 99.9 percent or 99.97 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug.

Typically, the device contained in the kit comprises: a) an element for heating the migraine headache drug composition to form a vapor; b) an element allowing the vapor to cool to form an aerosol; and, c) an element permitting the mammal to inhale the aerosol.

Typically, the kit comprises less than the typical oral dose of a migraine headache drug. Preferably, the kit comprises less than 80 percent by weight of the typical dose of a migraine headache drug. More preferably, the kit comprises less than 60 percent, 40 percent, or 20 percent by weight of a migraine headache drug.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Formation of Migraine Headache Drug Containing Aerosols

Any suitable method is used to form the aerosols of the present invention. A preferred method, however, involves heating a composition comprising a migraine headache drug to form a vapor, followed by cooling of the vapor such that it condenses to provide a migraine headache drug comprising aerosol (condensation aerosol). The composition is heated in one of four forms: as pure active compound (e.g., pure lidocaine, verapamil, diltiazem, isometheptene, or lisuride); as a mixture of active compound and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient; as a salt form of the pure active compound; and, as a mixture of active compound salt form and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

Salt forms of migraine headache drugs (e.g., lidocaine, verapamil, diltiazem, isometheptene, and lisuride) are either commercially available or are obtained from the corresponding free base using well known methods in the art. A variety of pharmaceutically acceptable salts are suitable for aerosolization. Such salts include, without limitation, the following: hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, acetic acid, maleic acid, formic acid, and fumaric acid salts.

Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients may be volatile or nonvolatile. Volatile excipients, when heated, are concurrently volatilized, aerosolized and inhaled with the migraine headache drug. Classes of such excipients are known in the art and include, without limitation, gaseous, supercritical fluid, liquid and solid solvents. The following is a list of exemplary carriers within the classes: water; terpenes, such as menthol; alcohols, such as ethanol, propylene glycol, glycerol and other similar alcohols; dimethylformamide; dimethylacetamide; wax; supercritical carbon dioxide; dry ice; and mixtures thereof.

Solid supports on which the composition is heated are of a variety of shapes. Examples of such shapes include, without limitation, cylinders of less than 1.0 mm in diameter, boxes of less than 1.0 mm thickness and virtually any shape permeated by small (e.g., less than 1.0 mm-sized) pores. Preferably, solid supports provide a large surface to volume ratio (e.g., greater than 100 per meter) and a large surface to mass ratio (e.g., greater than 1 cm2 per gram).

A solid support of one shape can also be transformed into another shape with different properties. For example, a flat sheet of 0.25 mm thickness has a surface to volume ratio of approximately 8,000 per meter. Rolling the sheet into a hollow cylinder of 1 cm diameter produces a support that retains the high surface to mass ratio of the original sheet but has a lower surface to volume ratio (about 400 per meter).

A number of different materials are used to construct the solid supports. Classes of such materials include, without limitation, metals, inorganic materials, carbonaceous materials and polymers. The following are examples of the material classes: aluminum, silver, gold, stainless steel, copper and tungsten; silica, glass, silicon and alumina; graphite, porous carbons, carbon yarns and carbon felts; polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene glycol. Combinations of materials and coated variants of materials are used as well.

Where aluminum is used as a solid support, aluminum foil is a suitable material. Examples of silica, alumina and silicon based materials include amphorous silica S-5631 (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.), BCR171 (an alumina of defined surface area greater than 2 m2/g from Aldrich, St. Louis, Mo.) and a silicon wafer as used in the semiconductor industry. Carbon yarns and felts are available from American Kynol, Inc., New York, N.Y. Chromatography resins such as octadecycl silane chemically bonded to porous silica are exemplary coated variants of silica.

The heating of the migraine headache drug compositions is performed using any suitable method. Examples of methods by which heat can be generated include the following: passage of current through an electrical resistance element; absorption of electromagnetic radiation, such as microwave or laser light; and, exothermic chemical reactions, such as exothermic solvation, hydration of pyrophoric materials and oxidation of combustible materials.

Delivery of Migraine Headache Drug Containing Aerosols

Migraine headache drug containing aerosols of the present invention are delivered to a mammal using an inhalation device. Where the aerosol is a condensation aerosol, the device has at least three elements: an element for heating a migraine headache drug containing composition to form a vapor; an element allowing the vapor to cool, thereby providing a condensation aerosol; and, an element permitting the mammal to inhale the aerosol. Various suitable heating methods are described above. The element that allows cooling is, in it simplest form, an inert passageway linking the heating means to the inhalation means. The element permitting inhalation is an aerosol exit portal that forms a connection between the cooling element and the mammal's respiratory system.

One device used to deliver the migraine headache drug containing aerosol is described in reference to FIG. 1. Delivery device 100 has a proximal end 102 and a distal end 104, a heating module 106, a power source 108, and a mouthpiece 110. A migraine headache drug composition is deposited on a surface 112 of heating module 106. Upon activation of a user activated switch 114, power source 108 initiates heating of heating module 106 (e.g, through ignition of combustible fuel or passage of current through a resistive heating element). The migraine headache drug composition volatilizes due to the heating of heating module 106 and condenses to form a condensation aerosol prior to reaching the mouthpiece 110 at the proximal end of the device 102. Air flow traveling from the device distal end 104 to the mouthpiece 110 carries the condensation aerosol to the mouthpiece 110, where it is inhaled by the mammal.

Devices, if desired, contain a variety of components to facilitate the delivery of migraine headache drug containing aerosols. For instance, the device may include any component known in the art to control the timing of drug aerosolization relative to inhalation (e.g., breath-actuation), to provide feedback to patients on the rate and/or volume of inhalation, to prevent excessive use (i.e., "lock-out" feature), to prevent use by unauthorized individuals, and/or to record dosing histories.

Dosage of Migraine Headache Drug Containing Aerosols

The dosage amount of a migraine headache drug in aerosol form is generally no greater than twice the standard dose of the drug given orally. A typical dosage of a migraine headache drug aerosol is either administered as a single inhalation or as a series of inhalations taken within an hour or less (dosage equals sum of inhaled amounts). Where the drug is administered as a series of inhalations, a different amount may be delivered in each inhalation.

One can determine the appropriate dose of a migraine headache drug containing aerosols to treat a particular condition using methods such as animal experiments and a dose-finding (Phase I/II) clinical trial. One animal experiment involves measuring plasma concentrations of drug in an animal after its exposure to the aerosol. Mammals such as dogs or primates are typically used in such studies, since their respiratory systems are similar to that of a human. Initial dose levels for testing in humans is generally less than or equal to the dose in the mammal model that resulted in plasma drug levels associated with a therapeutic effect in humans. Dose escalation in humans is then performed, until either an optimal therapeutic response is obtained or a dose-limiting toxicity is encountered.

Analysis of Migraine Headache Drug Containing Aerosols

Purity of a migraine headache drug containing aerosol is determined using a number of methods, examples of which are described in Sekine et al., Journal of Forensic Science 32:1271-1280 (1987) and Martin et al., Journal of Analytic Toxicology 13:158-162 (1989). One method involves forming the aerosol in a device through which a gas flow (e.g., air flow) is maintained, generally at a rate between 0.4 and 60 L/min. The gas flow carries the aerosol into one or more traps. After isolation from the trap, the aerosol is subjected to an analytical technique, such as gas or liquid chromatography, that permits a determination of composition purity.

A variety of different traps are used for aerosol collection. The following list contains examples of such traps: filters; glass wool; impingers; solvent traps, such as dry ice-cooled ethanol, methanol, acetone and dichloromethane traps at various pH values; syringes that sample the aerosol; empty, low-pressure (e.g., vacuum) containers into which the aerosol is drawn; and, empty containers that fully surround and enclose the aerosol generating device. Where a solid such as glass wool is used, it is typically extracted with a solvent such as ethanol. The solvent extract is subjected to analysis rather than the solid (i.e., glass wool) itself. Where a syringe or container is used, the container is similarly extracted with a solvent.

The gas or liquid chromatograph discussed above contains a detection system (i.e., detector). Such detection systems are well known in the art and include, for example, flame ionization, photon absorption and mass spectrometry detectors. An advantage of a mass spectrometry detector is that it can be used to determine the structure of migraine headache drug degradation products.

Particle size distribution of a migraine headache drug containing aerosol is determined using any suitable method in the art (e.g., cascade impaction). An Andersen Eight Stage Non-viable Cascade Impactor (Andersen Instruments, Smyrna, Ga.) linked to a furnace tube by a mock throat (USP throat, Andersen Instruments, Smyrna, Ga.) is one system used for cascade impaction studies.

Inhalable aerosol mass density is determined, for example, by delivering a drug-containing aerosol into a confined chamber via an inhalation device and measuring the mass collected in the chamber. Typically, the aerosol is drawn into the chamber by having a pressure gradient between the device and the chamber, wherein the chamber is at lower pressure than the device. The volume of the chamber should approximate the tidal volume of an inhaling patient.

Inhalable aerosol drug mass density is determined, for example, by delivering a drug-containing aerosol into a confined chamber via an inhalation device and measuring the amount of active drug compound collected in the chamber. Typically, the aerosol is drawn into the chamber by having a pressure gradient between the device and the chamber, wherein the chamber is at lower pressure than the device. The volume of the chamber should approximate the tidal volume of an inhaling patient. The amount of active drug compound collected in the chamber is determined by extracting the chamber, conducting chromatographic analysis of the extract and comparing the results of the chromatographic analysis to those of a standard containing known amounts of drug.

Inhalable aerosol particle density is determined, for example, by delivering aerosol phase drug into a confined chamber via an inhalation device and measuring the number of particles of given size collected in the chamber. The number of particles of a given size may be directly measured based on the light-scattering properties of the particles. Alternatively, the number of particles of a given size is determined by measuring the mass of particles within the given size range and calculating the number of particles based on the mass as follows: Total number of particles=Sum (from size range 1 to size range N) of number of particles in each size range. Number of particles in a given size range=Mass in the size range/Mass of a typical particle in the size range. Mass of a typical particle in a given size range=π*D3*φ/6, where D is a typical particle diameter in the size range (generally, the mean boundary MMADs defining the size range) in microns, φ is the particle density (in g/mL) and mass is given in units of picograms (g-12).

Rate of inhalable aerosol particle formation is determined, for example, by delivering aerosol phase drug into a confined chamber via an inhalation device. The delivery is for a set period of time (e.g., 3 s), and the number of particles of a given size collected in the chamber is determined as outlined above. The rate of particle formation is equal to the number of 100 nm to 5 micron particles collected divided by the duration of the collection time.

Rate of aerosol formation is determined, for example, by delivering aerosol phase drug into a confined chamber via an inhalation device. The delivery is for a set period of time (e.g., 3 s), and the mass of particulate matter collected is determined by weighing the confined chamber before and after the delivery of the particulate matter. The rate of aerosol formation is equal to the increase in mass in the chamber divided by the duration of the collection time. Alternatively, where a change in mass of the delivery device or component thereof can only occur through release of the aerosol phase particulate matter, the mass of particulate matter may be equated with the mass lost from the device or component during the delivery of the aerosol. In this case, the rate of aerosol formation is equal to the decrease in mass of the device or component during the delivery event divided by the duration of the delivery event.

Rate of drug aerosol formation is determined, for example, by delivering a migraine headache drug containing aerosol into a confined chamber via an inhalation device over a set period of time (e.g., 3 s). Where the aerosol is pure migraine headache drug, the amount of drug collected in the chamber is measured as described above. The rate of drug aerosol formation is equal to the amount of migraine headache drug collected in the chamber divided by the duration of the collection time. Where the migraine headache drug containing aerosol comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, multiplying the rate of aerosol formation by the percentage of migraine headache drug in the aerosol provides the rate of drug aerosol formation.

Utility of Migraine Headache Drug Containing Aerosols

The migraine headache drug containing aerosols of the present invention are typically used for the treatment of migraine headaches.

 


Claim 1 of 30 Claims

1. A condensation aerosol for delivery of a drug selected from the group consisting of rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, sumatriptan, frovatriptan and naratriptan,

wherein the condensation aerosol is formed by heating a thin layer containing the drug, on a solid support, to produce a vapor of the drug, and condensing the vapor to form a condensation aerosol

characterized by less than 10% drug degradation products by weight, and

an MMAD of less than 5 microns.

____________________________________________
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