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Title:  Ovarian cancer cell and myeloma cell surface glycoproteins, antibodies thereto, and uses thereof
United States Patent: 
7,226,750
Issued: 
June 5, 2007

Inventors: 
Gelber; Cohava (Hartsdale, NY)
Assignee: 
Molecular Discoveries, Inc. (New York, NY)
Appl. No.: 
10/049,608
Filed: 
August 8, 2000
PCT Filed: 
August 08, 2000
PCT No.: 
PCT/US00/21574
371(c)(1),(2),(4) Date: 
September 16, 2002
PCT Pub. No.: 
WO01/12674
PCT Pub. Date: 
February 22, 2001


 

Executive MBA in Pharmaceutical Management, U. Colorado


Abstract

The present invention is directed to cell surface antigenes found on myeloma cells and on ovarian cancer cells that are recognized by monoclonal antibodies, and antibody binding fragments thereof, as described. The monoclonal antibodies of the invention are capable of being used for therapeutic, screening, diagnostic and cell purification purposes. A representative and exemplified monoclonal antibody of the present invention recognizes and binds to an epitope common to a surface antigen that is expressed on multiple myeloma cells and to a surface antigen that is expressed on ovarian cancer cells. The function of this monoclonal antibody both in vivo and in vitro is demonstrated.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In its broadest aspect, the present invention is directed to a monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment thereof, which specifically binds to antigens sharing a common epitope present on the surface of human myeloma cells and ovarian cancer cells. The antigen on multiple myeloma cells is a single glycosylated polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 78 kDa to about 120 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. The antigen on ovarian cancer cells is a single glycosylated polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 76 kDa to about 213 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. The antigens are absent from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, absent from human B cells, and absent from human chronic myelongenic leukemia cells. Further, the antigens are not present on cells from a breast cancer tumor, not present on a prostate cancer cell line, not present on a neuroblastoma cell line, and not present on a cervical cancer cell line. The antigens are also not found on an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell tumor.

A non-limiting example of the monoclonal antibody is that produced by the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC.RTM.), 10801 University Boulevard, Manassas, Va. 20110-2209 on Aug. 3, 1999, and having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450. The monoclonal antibody produced by the deposited hybridoma cell line having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450 is termed both MoAb 69 and VAC69 herein.

The present invention is further directed to antibodies that are capable of binding to the same antigenic determinant as does the monoclonal antibody produced by the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450; binding fragments of the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450; and to binding fragments of a monoclonal antibody capable of binding to the same antigenic determinant as does the monoclonal antibody produced by the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450.

Such monoclonal antibodies, or antibody fragments, may be human, or they may be derived from other mammalian species, such as rodent, hybrids thereof, chimeric antibodies, and the like. Binding fragments of the monoclonal antibodies of the present invention include, but are not limited to, F(ab').sub.2, Fab', Fv, Fd', or Fd fragments.

In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a cell line produced by a hybridoma technique, which produces a monoclonal antibody which specifically binds to surface antigens of human myeloma cells and of ovarian cancer cells. The antigen on multiple myeloma cells is a single glycosylated polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 78 kDa to about 120 kDa as determined by SDS PAGE under reducing conditions. The antigen on ovarian cancer cells is a single glycosylated polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 76 kDa to about 213 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. The antigens are absent from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, absent from human B cells, and absent from human chronic myelongenic leukemia cells. A non-limiting example of a monoclonal antibody according to the present invention is that produced by the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having accession No. PTA-450. Furthermore, the antigens are not present on cells from a breast cancer tumor, not present on a prostate cancer cell line, not present on a neuroblastoma cell line, and not present on a cervical cancer cell line. The antigens are also not found on an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell tumor.

A further aspect of the present invention is the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC.RTM.), 10801 University Boulevard, Manassas, Va. 20110-2209 on Aug. 3, 1999, and having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450.

In another broad aspect of the present invention, an isolated surface antigen of human multiple myeloma cells is described, the antigen being a single glycosylated polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 78 kDa to about 120 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions; the antigen being absent from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, absent from human B cells, and absent from human acute myelogenic leukemia cells. The antigen is not present on cells from a breast cancer tumor, not present on a prostate cancer cell line, not present on a neuroblastoma cell line, and not present on a cervical cancer cell line. It is also not found on an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell tumor. The isolated multiple myeloma surface antigen binds to a monoclonal antibody produced by the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450.

In another broad aspect of the present invention, an isolated surface antigen of human ovarian cancer cells is described, the antigen being a single glycosylated polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 76 kDa to about 213 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions; the antigen being absent from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, absent from human B cells, and absent from human acute myelogenic leukemia cells. The antigen is not present on cells from a breast cancer tumor, not present on a prostate cancer cell line, not present on a neuroblastoma cell line, and not present on a cervical cancer cell line. It is also not found on an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell tumor. The isolated ovarian cancer surface antigen binds to a monoclonal antibody produced by the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450.

The present invention is also directed to methods of inhibiting the growth of, or killing, myeloma cells in a patient by administering the monoclonal antibody, or a binding fragment as described above, under conditions sufficient for the binding of the monoclonal antibody, or the binding fragment, to the myeloma cells to cause inhibiting or killing of the cancer cells by the immune cells of the patient. In another aspect, a method for inhibiting or killing myeloma cells in a patient is provided by administering the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment as described above, which is conjugated with a cytotoxic moiety, under conditions sufficient for the binding of the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, to the cancer cells to inhibit the growth of, or to kill, the cells. The cytotoxic moiety may be, by way of non-limiting example, a chemotherapeutic agent, a photo-activated toxin, or a radioactive agent.

In still another aspect of the invention, the above-mentioned conjugate of the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, described herein and a cytotoxic moiety may be used in vitro to inhibit growth of, or kill, myeloma cells in a cellular sample, such as a bone marrow sample.

The invention is also directed to anti-idiotypic antibodies which mirror the binding site of the monoclonal antibody of the invention, and are specific to the myeloma and ovarian cancer conformational epitope recognized by the antibody of the invention. The invention is further directed to the use of the aforementioned anti-idiotypic antibodies for the treatment of MM or ovarian cancer by active immunization.

In a further aspect of the invention, a method is provided for removing myeloma cells from an isolated cellular sample, such as, but not limited to, bone marrow cells, by exposing the cellular sample to a solid matrix on which the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, described above is bound under conditions wherein the myeloma cells adhere to the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, and isolating a cellular fraction of said cellular sample which does not bind to the matrix. This method may be used, for example, in the removal of myeloma cells from a bone marrow sample for autologous bone marrow transplant.

The invention is also directed to the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, as described above bound to a solid support.

In yet another aspect of the invention, a method is provided for localizing myeloma cells or tumor cells, or ovarian cancer cells or tumor cells, in a patient by administering the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, as described above, allowing the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment thereof, to bind to the cancer cells within said patient, and determining the location of the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment thereof, within the patient. In another related aspect, the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, is detectably labeled, for example, with a radionuclide.

The present invention is further directed to methods of inhibiting the growth of, or killing, ovarian cancer cells in a patient by administering the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, as described above under conditions sufficient for the binding of the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, to the ovarian cancer cells to cause growth inhibition or killing of the ovarian cancer cells by immune cells of the patient. In another aspect, a method for inhibiting or killing ovarian cancer cells in a patient is provided by administering the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, as described above which is conjugated with a cytotoxic moiety, under conditions sufficient for the binding of the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, to ovarian cancer cells to cause growth inhibition or killing of the ovarian cancer cells. The cytotoxic moiety may be, by way of non-limiting example, a chemotherapeutic agent, a photo-activated toxin, or a radioactive agent.

In yet another aspect of the invention, a method is provided for localizing ovarian cancer cells in a patient by administering the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, described above, allowing the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment thereof, to bind to ovarian cancer cells within said patient, and determining the location of said monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment thereof, within said patient. In another related aspect, the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, is detectably labeled, for example, with a radionuclide.

It is a further aspect of the invention to permit the detection of the cell surface glycoproteins described herein in a sample of bodily fluid, to aid in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, or other cancer cells expressing a glycoprotein with the epitope recognized by the antibodies herein, by the detection of the glycoprotein antigen shed from cancer cells into the bodily fluid, such as blood. Furthermore, the stage of the disease may be monitored and the effectiveness of anti-cancer therapies can be monitored by determining the level or changes over time of the level of shed surface glycoprotein in a bodily fluid such as blood.

In still yet another aspect, the invention is directed to pharmaceutical compositions comprising a monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, as described above and a pharmaceutically-acceptable carrier, diluent, or excipient.

In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, as described above labeled with a detectable moiety, such as, by way of non-limiting examples, a fluorophore, a chromophore, a radionuclide, or an enzyme.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Identification of unique cancer antigens enables the design of selective immunotherapy for neoplastic diseases. The capacity to utilize a determinant exclusively expressed by cancer cells, and which is devoid in normal tissues, ensures the targeting and elimination of the neoplastic cells while insulating the function of normal cells. Although the last decades have witnessed great activity and significant success in the search for novel cancer antigens for various neoplastic diseases, cancer-specific antigens have not yet been defined for many malignancies. The majority of cancer antigens are self-antigens that are derived from and expressed by normal counterpart cells. Frequently, the cancer antigen is identical to the normal antigen even though it is expressed at higher levels, or endowed with a negligible mutation insufficient for its distinction from the self-antigen. One of the escape mechanisms of malignant cells from the immune system is their similarity to their normal counterpart cells, thus resulting in low visibility of the malignant cells by the immune system.

New surface glycoprotein antigens that are present on human myeloma cells and human ovarian cancer tumor cells, but absent from normal cells and from leukemic cells, are provided by the present invention. Such antigens present a target for therapeutic intervention in myeloma and ovarian cancer, as well as for diagnostic and cell purification purposes. These antigens share at least one common epitope.

A technique known as contrasting or differential immunization was employed for obtaining monoclonal antibodies to the antigen and for the identification of the novel cancer antigens described herein. As described in the examples below, two divergent immunogens provided at different locations were used. The dual immunization polarizes the migration of the distinct populations of immune cells to discrete draining lymph nodes. In an example herein, a mixture of human myeloma cells was used as the immunogen to obtain murine monoclonal antibodies to a myeloma cell surface antigen. Control cells in this example, i.e., a related, myelogenic leukemic cell line, were used to polarize the immune response to effectively delete undesired cells from the lymph nodes near the site of immunization with the desired antigen. The immune cells extracted from the draining lymph nodes close to the immunization site with the desired neoplasms were immortalized by fusion with murine myeloma cells. The antipodal draining lymph nodes were populated with immune cells specific to the undesired (control) immunogens.

By use of the foregoing protocol, a series of monoclonal antibodies were prepared which were found to bind specifically to antigens on the surfaces of human myeloma cells and on ovarian cancer cells. These antigens share at least one epitope. The antigens are further characterized in that the antigen on multiple myeloma cells is a single glycosylated polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 78 kDa to about 120 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions; and it is absent from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, absent from human B cells, and absent from human B cell myelogenic leukemia cells.

The antigen on ovarian cancer cells is a single glycosylated polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 76 kDa to about 213 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions; and it is absent from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, absent from human B cells, and absent from human B cell myelogenic leukemia cells. An antigen recognized by the antibody of the invention is also present on liver cancer cells; thus, the liver cancer cell surface antigen has at least one epitope in common with the myeloma and ovarian cancer surface glycoprotein. An example of a hybridoma cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody which recognizes these antigens has been deposited at the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC.RTM.), 10801 University Boulevard, Manassas, Va. 20110-2209, on Aug. 3, 1999, and accorded ATCC Accession No. PTA-450.

The aforementioned antigens were found not to be present on cells from a breast cancer tumor, and were not present on a prostate cancer cell line, or on a neuroblastoma cell line, or on a cervical cancer cell line. They were also not found on an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell tumor.

As further exemplified herein, VAC69, the monoclonal antibody produced by the hybridoma deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-450 was shown to react with a single chain cell surface glycoprotein with a M.sub.r of about 78 kDa to about 120 kDa. The VAC69 MoAb did not react with an array of human cancers such as lung, prostate, breast, cervical, neuroblastoma, lymphoma and leukemia. In addition, the antigen was not detected in human normal tissues such as those derived from breast, ovary, prostate, colon, or lung. Interestingly, VAC69, when tested on a panel of human malignancies reacted with ovarian cancer. VAC69-reactive antigen expressed by ovarian cancer cells appears to be distinct from that expressed by MM by its pattern of expression, i.e., being either a single high M.sub.r glycoprotein (.about.200 kDa) or a set of glycoproteins with a M.sub.r of about 76 kDa to about 213 kDa. One ovarian tumor expressed a single high M.sub.r band, thereby indicating that the existence of a multiple subunit antigen is unlikely. Accordingly, the lower M.sub.r bands may represent degradation products of the larger glycoprotein. The increase in M.sub.r of the glycoprotein expressed by ovarian cancer compared with that expressed by the MM antigen may imply that VAC69 recognizes a communal epitope on two distinct antigens.

The present invention is directed to monoclonal antibodies, and binding fragments thereof, which recognize the aforementioned myeloma cell and ovarian cancer cell surface glycoproteins. Thus, the present invention embraces the deposited monoclonal antibody described above and monoclonal antibodies and their binding fragments having binding specificity for the aforementioned antigens. Such antibody fragments capable of binding the aforementioned antigens, include, but are not limited to, F(ab').sub.2 fragments, Fab' fragments, Fv fragments, Fd' fragments, or Fd fragments. Antibodies may be human, mammalian, such as mouse, and hybrid or chimeric antibodies. The antibody fragments and means for preparing then from antibodies are known to one of skill in the art.

The monoclonal antibodies and antibody binding fragments may be characterized as those which are 1) produced from the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection and having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450; 2) capable of binding to the same anti genic determinant as does the monoclonal antibody produced by the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450; 3) binding fragments of the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA450; or 4) binding fragments of a monoclonal antibody capable of binding to the same antigenic determinant as does the monoclonal antibody produced by the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450.

Accordingly, the aforementioned monoclonal antibodies and binding fragments recognize a common epitope of cell surface glycoproteins present on human myeloma cells and on human ovarian cancer cells, but absent from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, absent from human B cells, and absent from human B cell myelogenic leukemia cells. Further, the cell surface glycoprotein on myeloma cells is a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 78 kDa to about 120 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. The cell surface glycoprotein on ovarian cancer ells is a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 76 kDa to about 213 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. As the myeloma, ovarian cancer, and liver cancer cell surface glycoproteins share a common epitope recognized by the antibodies of the invention, such antibodies may be used therapeutically and diagnostically for these conditions. As mentioned above, the antigen is also present on the surface of liver cancer cells, but is not present on cells from a breast cancer tumor, not present on a prostate cancer cell line, not present on a neuroblastoma cells line, and not present on a cervical cancer cell line. It is also not found on an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell tumor.

The present invention is also directed to hybridoma cell lines which produce a monoclonal antibody which specifically binds to the surface antigens of human myeloma cells and ovarian cancer cells as described and characterized herein. These antigens have a shared region or an epitope contained in the cell surface glycoproteins of these neoplasms. The methods for the preparation of such hydridomas are known to the skilled artisan. The contrasting immunization procedure described herein is but one example of various means for obtaining the desired antibodies. For preparation of monoclonal antibodies directed toward the surface glycoprotein antigens described herein, any technique that provides for the production of antibody molecules by continuous cell lines in culture may be used. For example, such techniques include, but are not limited to, the hybridoma technique originally developed by Kohler and Milstein (Nature, 256:495 497, 1975), as well as the trioma technique, the human B-cell hybridoma technique (Kozbor et al., Immunology Today, 4:72, 1983; Cote et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 80:2026 2030, 1983), and the EBV-hybridoma technique to produce human monoclonal antibodies (Cole et al., in Monoclonal Antibodies and Cancer Therapy, Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 770 96, 1985).

In another embodiment of the present invention, monoclonal antibodies can be produced in germ-free animals utilizing the technology described in international application number WO 98/02545. Also, according to the invention, techniques developed for the production of "chimeric antibodies" are suitable for use. Preferred are human or humanized chimeric antibodies for use in therapy of human diseases or disorders as described infra, since the human or humanized antibodies themselves are much less likely than xenogenic antibodies to induce an immune response, particularly an allergic response.

According to the present invention, techniques described for the production of single chain antibodies (U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,476,786 and 5,132,405 to Huston; and U.S. Pat. No. 4,946,778) can be adapted to produce myeloma surface antigen-specific single chain antibodies. An additional embodiment of the invention utilizes the techniques described for the construction of Fab expression libraries (Huse et al., Science, 246:1275 1281, 1989) to allow the rapid and easy identification of monoclonal Fab fragments with the desired specificity, or fragment derivatives, or analogs.

Antibody fragments which contain the idiotype of the antibody molecule can also be generated by known techniques. For example, such fragments include, but are not limited to, the F(ab').sub.2 fragment which can be produced by pepsin digestion of the antibody molecule; the Fab' fragments which can be generated by reducing the disulfide bridges of the F(ab').sub.2 fragment, and the Fab fragments which can be generated by treating the antibody molecule with papain and a reducing agent.

As mentioned above, the present invention is also directed to the isolated surface antigens of human myeloma cells and human ovarian cancer cells, wherein the human myeloma cell-expressed antigen is characterized as being a single glycosylated polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 78 kDa to about 120 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and the human ovarian cancer cell-expressed antigen is characterized as having a molecular weight of about 76 kDa to about 213 kDa. These antigens are absent from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, absent from human B cells, and absent from human B cell myelogenic leukemia cells. The antigens are also absent from breast cancer cells, as determined using fresh tumor tissue; absent from prostate cancer cells, determined using a prostate cancer cell line; absent from neuroblastoma cells, as determined using a neuroblastoma cell line, and absent from cervical cancer cells as determined by using a cervical cancer cell line. The glycoproteins have been found to be present on the surfaces of cells from a freshly-isolated liver cancer tumor. Thus, the above-described methods are also applicable to the therapy and diagnosis of liver cancer. The isolated surface antigens are further characterized in that they bind to the monoclonal antibody produced by the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450.

The monoclonal antibody MA69 reacts consistently with a single chain glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 78 120 kDa on multiple myeloma (MM) cells. On ovarian carcinoma cells, however, MA69 recognizes one or more glycoproteins ranging in size from 76 to 213 kDa. These results imply that MA69 reacts with two distinct molecules expressed on MM and ovarian cancer cells through the recognition of a shared region or an epitope contained in the cell surface glycoproteins of these neoplasms. This epitope is uniquely expressed on cells of ovarian and MM malignancies and was not found on the cell surfaces of a panel of human tumors, such as lung cancer, cervical cancer, neuroblastoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, leukemia and lymphomas. Thus, the present invention is also generally directed to cell surface glycoproteins which comprise an epitope recognized by the antibodies of the invention. As noted above, cell surface glycoproteins comprising this epitope are absent from the various normal and cancer cells tested and listed above.

The present invention is also directed to therapeutic methods for the treatment of myeloma and related dysproliferative diseases in humans, including multiple myeloma, as well as ovarian cancer, using the antibodies of the present invention. The therapeutic and diagnostic uses described herein embrace primary tumors as well as metastases. For example, a method for inhibiting or killing myeloma cells or ovarian cancer cells in a patient may be carried out by administering to the patient, in a single dose or in successive doses, the monoclonal antibody, or antibody binding fragment as described above, under conditions sufficient for the binding of the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment, to tumor cells in the patient. Binding of antibodies to the tumor cells induces the growth inhibition and/or killing of the tumor cells by immune cells in the patient.

The aforementioned therapy may be accompanied by other treatments directed at the tumor cells, such as chemotherapy, radiation, etc., as well as by adjunctive therapies to enhance the immune system's attack on the opsonized tumor cells following the procedure described above. For example, a growth factor such as erythropoietin and/or GM-CSF can be co-administered to the patient for stimulating the white blood cells and supporting the immunocompetence status of the patient.

Further, chimeric or other recombinant antibodies of the invention may be used therapeutically. For example, a fusion protein comprising at least the antigen-binding region of the antibody of the invention joined to at least a functionally active portion of a second protein having anti-tumor effects, e.g., a lymphokine or oncostatin, may be used to treat a human tumor in vivo. In addition, a chimeric antibody, wherein the antigen-binding site is joined to human Fc region, e.g., IgG1, may be used to promote antibody-dependent mediated cytotoxicity or complement-mediated cytotoxicity. In addition, recombinant techniques known in the art can be used to construct bispecific antibodies wherein one of the binding specificities is that of the antibody of the invention (See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,474,893).

It will be appreciated by the skilled practitioner that other dysproliferative diseases in which the glycoprotein antigens of the invention are present on the cell surface are treatable by the methods described herein.

The above-described methods utilize the antibodies or binding fragments without modification, relying on the binding of the antibodies or fragments to the surface antigen(s) of the myeloma or ovarian cancer cells in situ to stimulate an immune attack thereon. In another aspect of the therapeutic methods, the aforementioned method may be carried out using the monoclonal antibodies or binding fragments to which a cytotoxic agent is bound. Binding of the cytotoxic antibodies, or antibody binding fragments, to the tumor cells inhibits the growth of or kills the cells. By way of non-limiting example, suitable cytotoxic agents may be a chemotherapeutic agent, a photo-activated toxin or radioactive agent. For example, cytotoxic agents such as ricin A chain, abrin A chain, modeccin A chain, gelonin, melphalan, bleomycin, adriamycin, daunomycin, or pokeweed antiviral proteins (PAP, PAPII, PAP-S).

Those skilled in the art will realize that there are numerous radioisotopes and chemocytotoxic agents that can be coupled to tumor specific antibodies by well known techniques, and delivered to specifically destroy tumor tissue. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,542,225 to Blattler et al. Examples of photo-activated toxins include dihydropyridine- and omega-conotoxin (Schmidt et al., J. Biol. Chem., 1991, 266(27):18025 33). Examples of imaging and cytotoxic reagents that can be used include .sup.125I, .sup.111In, .sup.123I, .sup.99mTc, .sup.32P, .sup.32H, and .sup.14c; fluorescent labels such as fluorescein and rhodamine, and chemiluminescers such as luciferin. The antibody can be labeled with such reagents using techniques known in the art. For example, see Wenzel and Meares, Radioimmunoimaging and Radioimmunotherapy, Elsevier, New York (1983) for techniques relating to the radiolabeling of antibodies (see also, Colcer et al., "Use of Monoclonal Antibodies As Radiopharmaceuticals For The Localization Of Human Carcinoma Xenografts In Nude Mice", Methods Enzymol., 121:802 16, 1986: "Order, Analysis, Results and Future Prospective of the Therapeutic Use of Radiolabeled Antibody in Cancer Therapy", in Monoclonal Antibodiesfor Cancer Detection and Therapy, Baldwin et al. (eds), pp. 303 16 (Academic Press 1985).

Other covalent and non-covalent modifications of the antibodies or antibody fragments of the present invention are embraced herein, including agents which are co-administered or administered after the antibody or fragments, to induce growth inhibition or killing of the cells to which the antibody or fragment has previously bound.

Anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to the antibodies of the invention may also be used therapeutically in active tumor immunization and tumor therapy (see, e.g., Hellstrom et al., "Anti Idiotypes" in Covalently Modified Antigens and Antibodies in Diagnosis and Therapy, supra at pp. 35 41).

In the area of multiple mycloma, the antibodies or antibody fragments of the present invention have further utility in the preparation of cellular samples from which myeloma cells have been removed. This use is particularly important in autologous bone marrow transplants, wherein a sample of bone marrow is harvested from a cancer patient prior to the patient's undergoing high-dose chemotherapy. The goal of the high dose chemotherapy is to destroy the cancer cells, which also results in the depletion of bone marrow cells. Following such treatment, the harvested bone marrow cells are reintroduced into the patient.

In myeloma and related diseases, the harvested bone marrow is contaminated with myeloma cells; thus, reintroduction of untreated bone marrow will simply reintroduce the disease. Previous methods to prevent reintroduction of cancer cells have included treatment of the bone marrow sample with chemotherapeutic agents and other anti-neoplastic agents in vitro. Other methods include purging the sample of cancer cells.

In a further practice of the present invention, the monoclonal antibodies and fragments described herein may be used to remove myeloma cells from a patient's bone marrow sample before reintroduction into the patient. In one nonlimiting example, the monoclonal antibodies, or binding fragments, are attached to a matrix, such as beads. This may be accomplished by any of several well-known methods for preparing an affinity matrix comprising antibodies or their binding fragments. The bone marrow sample is then exposed to the matrix, such as by passage of the cells over a column containing the matrix, under conditions to promote the binding of the myeloma cells in the sample through antigen/antibody interactions with the antibodies or binding fragments attached to the matrix. The myeloma cells in the sample adhere to the matrix; while the column effluent, i.e., the non-adherent cellular population, is depleted of myeloma cells. The effectiveness of the procedure may be monitored by examining the cells for residual myeloma cells, such as by using a detectably-labeled antibody as described below. The procedure may be repeated or modified to increase effectiveness.

This purging procedure (see, e.g., Ramsay et al., J. Clin. Immunol., 8(2):81 88, 1988) may be performed together with other methods for removing or killing cancer cells, including, but not limited to, exposing the purified bone marrow cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Such chemotherapeutic agents include the use of the antibodies or antibody binding fragments of the present invention conjugated to a cytotoxic agent, as those described above for in vivo therapeutic treatment. Accordingly, conjugates of the antibodies or antibody fragments of the present invention with cytotoxic agents may be used for the ex vivo killing of tumor cells in a cellular sample. The methods may additionally include exposing the cells to cytokines (e.g., GM-CSF, IL-6), cytokine receptors (e.g., IL-6-receptor), mitogens (e.g., poke weed mitogen (PWM)), or adhesion molecules (e.g., CD40 ligand) in order to stimulate the myeloma cells to rapidly differentiate and thereby upregulate expression of cancer-specific antigens on their cell surface. These treatment modalities are intended to render the myeloma cells vulnerable to the in vitro-mediated cytotoxicity achieved by incubation with the monoclonal antibody, or fragments thereof, according to the present invention.

In a related aspect of the present invention, the monoclonal antibodies according to this invention can be used for immunotherapy, either unlabeled or labeled with a therapeutic agent. These therapeutic agents can be coupled either directly or indirectly to the described monoclonal antibodies, using techniques routinely practiced in the art. One example of indirect coupling is by the use of a spacer moiety. Spacer moieties, in turn, can be either insoluble or soluble (Dieher et al., 1986, Science, 231:148) and can be selected to enable drug release from the monoclonal antibody molecule at the target site. Examples of therapeutic agents which can be coupled to the monoclonal antibodies of the invention for anti-cancer immunotherapy are drugs, radioisotopes, lectins, and toxins.

The drugs with which can be conjugated to the monoclonal antibodies of the present invention include non-proteinaceous as well as proteinaceous compounds. The term "non-proteinaceous drugs" encompasses compounds which are classically referred to as drugs, for example, mitomycin C, daunorubicin, and vinblastine. The proteinaceous drugs with which the monoclonal antibodies of the invention can be labeled include immunomodulators and other biological response modifiers.

The term "biological response modifiers" is meant to encompass substances that are involved in modifying the immune response in such manner as to enhance the destruction of the antigen-bearing tumor for which the monoclonal antibodies of the invention is specific. Examples of immune response modifiers include such compounds as lymphokines. Lymphokines include tumor necrosis factor, interleukins, e.g., IL1 through IL15, lymphotoxin, macrophage activating factor (MAF), migration inhibition factor (MIF), colony stimulating factor (CSF), and interferon. Interferons with which the monoclonal antibodies of the invention can be labeled include alpha-interferon, beta-interferon and gamma-interferon and their subtypes.

In using radioisotopically conjugated monoclonal antibodies of the invention for immunotherapy, certain isotopes may be more preferable than others depending on such factors as leukocyte distribution as well as isotope stability and emission. If desired, the tumor cell distribution can be evaluated by the in vivo diagnostic techniques described above. Depending on the malignancy, some emitters may be preferable to others. In general, alpha and beta particle-emitting radioisotopes are preferred in immunotherapy. For example, if an animal has solid tumor foci, as in a carcinoma, a high energy beta emitter capable of penetrating several millimeters of tissue, such as .sup.90 Y, may be preferable. On the other hand, if the malignancy consists of simple target cells, as in the case of leukemia, a shorter range, high energy alpha emitter, such as .sup.212 Bi, may be preferable. Examples of radioisotopes which can be bound to the monoclonal antibodies of the invention for therapeutic purposes are .sup.251 I, .sup.131 I, .sup.90 Y, .sup.67 Cu, .sup.212 Bi, .sup.211 At, .sup.212 Pb, .sup.47 Sc, .sup.109 Pd, and .sup.188 Re.

Lectins are proteins, usually isolated from plant material, which bind to specific sugar moieties. Many lectins are also able to agglutinate cells and stimulate lymphocytes. Ricin is a toxic lectin that has been used immunotherapeutically. This is preferably accomplished by binding the alpha-peptide chain of ricin, which is responsible for toxicity, to the antibody molecule to enable site specific delivery of the toxic effect.

Toxins are poisonous substances produced by plants, animals, or microorganisms that, in sufficient dose, are often lethal. Diphtheria toxin (DT), a substance produced by Corynebacterium diphtheria, can be used therapeutically. DT consists of an alpha and beta subunit which under proper conditions can be separated. The toxic alpha component can be bound to an antibody and used for site specific delivery to a cell bearing an antigen for which the monoclonal antibodies of the invention are specific. Other therapeutic agents which can be coupled to the monoclonal antibodies of the invention are known, or can be easily ascertained, by those of ordinary skill in the art.

The labeled or unlabeled monoclonal antibodies of the present invention can also be used in combination with therapeutic agents such as those described above. Especially preferred are therapeutic combinations comprising the monoclonal antibody of the invention and immunomodulators and other biological response modifiers. Thus, for example, the monoclonal antibodies of the invention can be used in combination with alpha-interferon. This treatment modality enhances monoclonal antibody targeting of carcinomas by increasing the expression of monoclonal antibody reactive antigen by the carcinoma cells (Greiner et al., 1987, Science, 235:895). Alternatively, the monoclonal antibodies of this invention may be used, for example, in combination with gamma-interferon to activate and increase the expression of Fc receptors by effector cells, which, in turn, results in an enhanced binding of the monoclonal antibody to the effector cell and killing of target tumor cells. Those of skill in the art will be able to select from the various biological response modifiers to create a desired effector function which enhances the efficacy of the monoclonal antibodies of the invention.

When the monoclonal antibodies of the present invention are used in combination with various therapeutic agents, such as those described herein, the administration of the monoclonal antibody and the therapeutic agent usually occurs substantially contemporaneously. The term "substantially contemporaneously" means that the monoclonal antibody and the therapeutic agent are administered reasonably close together with respect to time. Usually, it is preferred to administer the therapeutic agent before the monoclonal antibody. For example, the therapeutic agent can be administered 1 to 6 days before the monoclonal antibody. The administration of the therapeutic agent can be daily, or at any other interval, depending upon such factors, for example, as the nature of the tumor, the condition of the patient and the half-life of the agent.

Using the monoclonal antibodies of the present invention, it is possible to design therapies combining all of the characteristics described herein. In a given situation, it may be desirable to administer a therapeutic agent, or agents, prior to the administration of the monoclonal antibodies of the invention, in combination with effector cells and the same, or different, therapeutic agent or agents. For example, it may be desirable to treat patients with malignant disease by first administering gamma-interferon and interleukin-2 daily for 3 to 5 days, and on day 5 administer the monoclonal antibody of the invention in combination with effector cells, as well as gamma-interferon, and interleukin-2.

It is also possible to utilize liposomes with the monoclonal antibodies of the present invention in their membranes to specifically deliver the liposome to the area of the tumor expressing SCLC-specific antigens. These liposomes can be produced such that they contain, in addition to monoclonal antibody, immunotherapeutic agents, such as those described above, which would then be released at the tumor site (e.g., Wolff et al., 1984, Biochem. et Biophys. Acta, 802:259).

The dosage ranges for the administration of the monoclonal antibodies of the invention are those large enough to produce the desired effect in which the symptoms of the malignant disease are ameliorated. The dosage should not be so large as to cause adverse side effects, such as unwanted cross-reactions, anaphylactic reactions, and the like. Generally, the dosage will vary with the age, condition, sex and extent of disease of the patient and can be determined by one of skill in the art. The dosage can be adjusted by the individual physician in the event of any complication. Dosage can vary from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 2000 mg/kg, preferably about 0.1 mg/kg to about 500 mg/kg, in one or more dose administrations daily, for one or several days.

Generally, when the monoclonal antibodies of the present invention are administered conjugated with therapeutic agents, lower dosages, comparable to those used for in vivo immunodiagnostic imaging, can be used. The monoclonal antibodies of the invention can be administered parenterally by injection or by gradual perfusion over time. The monoclonal antibodies of the invention can be administered intravenously, intraperitoneally, intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intracavity, or transdermally, alone or in combination with effector cells. Preparations for parenteral administration include sterile aqueous or non-aqueous solutions, suspensions, and emulsions. Examples of non-aqueous solvents are propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, vegetable oils such as olive oil, and injectable organic esters such as ethyl oleate. Aqueous carriers include water, alcoholic/aqueous solutions, emulsions or suspensions, including saline and buffered media. Parenteral vehicles include sodium chloride solution, Ringer's dextrose, dextrose and sodium chloride, lactated Ringer's, or fixed oils. Intravenous vehicles include fluid and nutrient replenishers, electrolyte replenishers (such as those based on Ringer's dextrose), and the like. Preservatives and other additives may also be present such as, for example, antimicrobials, anti-oxidants, chelating agents, and inert gases and the like.

In another aspect of the therapeutic methods of the present invention, the antibodies, or binding fragments thereof, conjugated with cytotoxic agents, such as chemotherapeutic agents, a photo-activatable toxin, or a radionuclide, may be used in vitro or ex vivo to inhibit or kill myeloma cells from a bone marrow sample, in the absence of the purging technique described above. The treatment of a sample with the cytotoxic antibodies, or antibody fragments, may be combined with other methods to kill cancer cells to increase the effectiveness of a bone marrow transplant, particularly an autologous bone marrow transplant, by removing cells from the tissue to be transplanted. These methods may include additionally exposing the cells to cytokines, etc. Thus, a method is described herein for removing myeloma cells from a isolated cellular sample comprising the steps of exposing the cellular sample to a solid matrix on which a monoclonal antibody, or antibody binding fragment as described herein, is bound under conditions in which the myeloma cells adhere to the monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment thereof, and isolating a cellular fraction of the cellular sample which does not bind to the matrix. By way of non-limiting example, bone marrow cells are used, particularly for a transplant, and preferably, an autologous bone marrow transplant.

In a further aspect of the present invention, compositions are provided which comprise the monoclonal antibody, or antibody binding fragment as described herein, bound to a solid support. A solid support for use in the present invention will be inert to the reaction conditions for binding. A solid phase support for use in the present invention must have reactive groups or activated groups in order to attach the monoclonal antibody or its binding partner thereto. In another embodiment, the solid phase support may be a useful chromatographic support, such as the carbohydrate polymers SEPHAROSE.RTM., SEPHADEX.RTM., or agarose. As used herein, a solid phase support is not limited to a specific type of support. Rather, a large number of supports are available and are known to one of ordinary skill in the art. Solid phase supports include, for example, silica gels, resins, derivatized plastic films, glass beads, cotton, plastic beads, alumina gels, magnetic beads, membranes (including, but not limited to, nitrocellulose, cellulose, nylon, and glass wool), plastic and glass dishes or wells, etc.

The present invention is also directed to diagnostic and imaging methods for multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer using the monoclonal antibodies and binding fragments thereof as described hereinabove. Other cancers bearing the surface antigens of the invention are also amenable to these diagnostic procedures. The method involves administration or infusion of monoclonal antibodies or binding fragments as described herein, with or without conjugation to a detectable moiety, such as a radionuclide. After administration or infusion, the antibody, or antibody fragment, binds to the tumor cells, after which the location of the antibodies, or fragments, is detected. For detectably-labeled antibodies or their binding fragments, such as those labeled with a radionuclide, imaging instrumentation may be used to identify the location of the agent within the body. For use of unlabeled antibodies or fragments, a second, detectable reagent may be administered which locates the antibodies or antibody fragments, and thus may be suitably detected. These methods have been used for other antibodies, and the skilled artisan will be amply aware of these various methods for imaging the location of antibodies or fragments within the body.

In the case of ovarian cancer, as well as other cancers expressing the antigens described herein, the present invention is further directed to the diagnosis of cancer by the identification and measurement of shed cell surface glycoprotein in bodily fluids, such as blood, serum, or plasma. As ovarian cancer is a particularly difficult cancer to diagnose in its early stages, thus thwarting the opportunity for early treatment, methods for early diagnosis are particularly needed. Measurement of shed surface glycoprotein in a whole blood sample, for example, by use of an antibody, or fragment thereof, of the invention provides such early diagnosis and the opportunity for treatment. Such treatment may comprise the foregoing antibody-based therapy, in combination with other agents, or the use of such agents in the absence of the antibodies of the invention.

Furthermore, the level of shed ovarian cancer antigen measured in blood or other bodily fluids provides a means for monitoring the course of ovarian cancer therapy, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and the therapeutic methods of the present invention. By correlating the level of shed antigen with the severity of disease, the level of shed antigen can be used to indicate successful removal of the primary tumor and/or metastases, and the effectiveness of other therapies over time. A decrease in the level over time indicates a reduced tumor burden in the patient. In contrast, no change, or an increase in level, indicates ineffectiveness of therapy or the continued growth of the tumor.

The present invention is also directed to pharmaceutical compositions comprising a monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment thereof, which specifically binds to an antigen on the surface of a human myeloma cell, the antigen being further characterized as described hereinabove, together with a pharmaceutically-acceptable carrier or diluent. The invention is further directed to pharmaceutical compositions comprising a monoclonal antibody, or binding fragment thereof, including the monoclonal antibody produced from the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450; antibodies that are capable of binding to the same antigenic determinant as does the monoclonal antibody produced by the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450; binding fragments of the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450; and binding fragments of a monoclonal antibody capable of binding to the same antigenic determinant as does the monoclonal antibody produced by the hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection having ATCC Accession No. PTA-450; and a pharmaceutically-acceptable carrier, excipient, or diluent. Antibody fragments include but are not limited to F(ab').sub.2 fragments, Fab' fragments, Fv fragments, Fd' fragments, or Fd fragments.

A pharmaceutical composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, excipient, or diluent. Preferably, the antibodies or binding fragments thereof are delivered parenterally, such as by intravenous administration. Alternative modes of administration include, but are not limited to, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, oral, intranasal, intrathecal, rectal, of intramuscular administration, and the like. Suitable buffers, carriers, and other components known to those in the art are used in formulating a composition comprising the antibody, or fragments thereof, for suitable shelf-life and compatibility with administration. These substances may include ancillary agents such as buffering agents and protein stabilizing agents (e.g., polysaccharides).

The antibodies of the present invention are also useful for diagnostic applications, both in vitro and in vivo, for the detection of human multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer cells that possess the antigen for which the antibodies are specific. In vitro diagnostic methods include immunohistological detection of tumor cells (e.g., on human tissue cells for excised tumor specimens), or serological detection of tumor-associated antigens (e.g., in blood samples or other biological fluids). Immunohistochemical techniques involve staining a biological specimen such as tissue specimen with the antibody of the invention and then detecting the presence of antibody complexed to its antigen as an antigen-antibody complex. The formation of such antibody-antigen complexes with the specimen indicates the presence of multiple myeloma cells in the tissue. Detection of the antibody on the specimen can be accomplished using techniques known in the art such as immunoenzymatic techniques, e.g., immunoperoxidase staining technique, or the avidin-biotin technique, or immunofluorescence techniques (see, e.g., Ciocca et al., "Immunohistochemical Techniques Using Monoclonal Antibodies", Methods Enzymol, 121:562 79, 1986 and Kimball, (ed), Introduction to Immunology (2.sup.nd Ed), pp. 113 117 (Macmillan Pub. Co., 1986).

Serologic diagnostic techniques involve the detection and quantification of tumor-associated antigens that have been secreted or "shed" into the serum or other biological fluids of patients thought to be suffering from multiple myeloma. Such antigens can be detected in the body fluids using techniques known in the art such as radioimmunoassay (RIA) or enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) wherein antibody reactive with the "shed" antigen is used to detect the presence of the antigen in a fluid sample (see, e.g., Uotila et al., "Two-Site Sandwich ELISA With Monoclonal Antibodies to Human AFP", J. Immunol. Methods, 42:11, 1981 and Allum et al., supra, at pp 48 51). Detection of the shed ovarian cancer antigen can be performed as described above.

Also as mentioned above, the antibodies of the present invention are useful for the measurement of shed ovarian cancer cell antigen in bodily fluids such as whole blood, serum, or plasma, for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer and the monitoring of the effectiveness of therapies.

In yet a further aspect of the present invention, monoclonal antibodies, or binding fragments thereof, having specificity for myeloma surface glycoprotein and ovarian cancer glycoprotein, as described, are labeled with a detectable moiety so that they can be used to diagnose or identify cells having the aforementioned antigens. Non-limiting examples of such labels include fluorophores, such as fluorescein isothiocyanate; chromophores, radionuclides, or enzymes. Such labeled antibodies or binding fragments may be used for the histological localization of the antigens, for ELISA, for cell sorting, and for other immunological techniques to detect and/or quantify the antigens, and cells bearing the antigens, for example. As noted above, a particular use of such labeled antibodies, or fragments thereof, is in determining the effectiveness of myeloma cell depletion from bone marrow tissue prior to transplant, particularly autologous bone marrow transplant.
 


Claim 1 of 14 Claims

1. A method for detecting ovarian cancer in a patient comprising: a) obtaining a biological sample from the patient; b) contacting the biological sample with a monoclonal antibody which is produced by a hybridoma cell line deposited at the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC.RTM.) as ATCC Accession Number PTA-450 or an antigen binding fragment thereof; and c) detecting the complex formed by the monoclonal antibody and the antigen to which the antibody binds, wherein the detection of the complex in the biological sample in an amount greater than an amount of the complex in a normal biological sample indicates the presence of ovarian cancer.

 

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